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Open Access Research article

Assessment of fall-related self-efficacy and activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease

Maria H Nilsson12*, Anna-Maria Drake3 and Peter Hagell14

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurosurgery, Lund, Skåne University Hospital, Sweden

3 Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

4 Department of Neurology, Lund, Skåne University Hospital, Sweden

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BMC Geriatrics 2010, 10:78  doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-78

Published: 25 October 2010



Fear of falling (FOF) is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and it is considered a vital aspect of comprehensive balance assessment in PD. FOF can be conceptualized differently. The Falls-Efficacy Scale (FES) assesses fall-related self-efficacy, whereas the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE) assesses activity avoidance due to the risk of falling. This study aimed at investigating the validity and reliability of FES and SAFFE in people with PD.


Seventy-nine people with PD (mean age; 64 years, SD 7.2) completed the Swedish version of FES(S), SAFFE and the physical functioning (PF) scale of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). FES(S) and SAFFE were administered twice, with an 8.8 (SD 2.3) days interval. Assumptions for summing item scores into total scores were examined and score reliability (Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability) were calculated. Construct validity was assessed by examining the pattern of Spearman correlations (rs) between the FES(S)/SAFFE and other variables, and by examining differences in FES(S)/SAFFE scores between fallers and non-fallers, genders, and between those reporting FOF and unsteadiness while turning.


For both scales, item mean scores (and standard deviations) were roughly similar and corrected item-total correlations exceeded 0.4. Reliabilities were ≥0.87. FES(S)-scores correlated strongest (rs, -0.74, p < 0.001) with SAFFE-scores, whereas SAFFE-scores correlated strongest with PF-scores (rs, -0.76, p < 0.001). Both scales correlated weakest with age (rs ≤ 0.08). Experiencing falls, unsteadiness while turning, and FOF was associated with lower fall-related self-efficacy and higher activity avoidance.


This study provides initial support for the score reliability and validity of the FES(S) and SAFFE in people with PD.