Table 3

Loneliness Is Associated with the Rate of Change in Motor Function

Terms

Model A*

Model B**


Time

-0.039 (0.013 p =,0.004)

-0.088 (0.024, p < 0.000)

Age

-0.037 (0.002, p < 0.001)

-0.034 (0.002, p < 0.001)

Age × Time

-0.004 (0.001, p < 0.001)

-0.004 (0.001, p < 0.001)

Sex

0.394 (0.038, p < 0.001)

0.425 (0.037, p < 0.001)

Sex × Time

-0.077 (0.009, p < 0.001)

-0.076 (0.009, p < 0.001)

Education

0.021 (0.005, p < 0.001)

0.015 (0.005, p = 0.004)

Education × Time

0.0004 (0.001, p = 0.722)

-0.0001 (0.001, p = 0.955)

Loneliness

-0.103 (0.026, p < 0.001)

-0.076 (0.026, p = 0.003)

Loneliness × Time

-0.016 (0.006, p = 0.005)

-0.014 (0.006, p = 0.018)

Social Activity

0.224 (0.029, p < 0.001)

Social Activity × Time

0.016 (0.007, p = 0.022)

Social Network

-0.001 (0.003, p = 0.725)

Social Network × Time

0.0004 (0.0001, p = 0.519)


* Model A is based on a linear mixed-effect model which shows the cross sectional association of a 1-point score on the Loneliness scale with the baseline global motor score (Loneliness) as well as its association with the rate of change in motor function (Loneliness × Time) and controls for age, sex and education and their interaction with Time. Units of comparison: Time in years since baseline, Age and education in years. ** Model B includes all the same terms as Model A but also includes terms to control for two measures of social isolation ( frequency of late-life social activities and social network size and their interactions with Time).

Buchman et al. BMC Geriatrics 2010 10:77   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-77

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