Table 2

Risk of coeliac disease in offspring (follow-up from birth) according to antibiotic exposure in pregnancy
Antibiotics (%) No Antibiotics (%) Crude HR; 95% CI Adjusted HR; 95% CIA Adjusted HR; 95% CIB
All 12/1836 (0.7) 34/6893 (0.5) 1.33; 0.69-2.56 1.32; 0.69-2.56 1.28; 0.66-2.48
Sex
Boys 4/932 (0.4) 12/3551 (0.3) 1.27; 0.41-3.94 1.28; 0.41-3.96 1.37; 0.44-4.27
Girls 8/904 (0.9) 22/3342 (0.7) 1.35; 0.60-3.02 1.36; 0.60-3.05 1.21; 0.53-2.73
Subgroups
No heredityC 9/1753 (0.5) 28/6660 (0.4) 1.22; 0.58-2.59 1.22; 0.58-2.59 1.16; 0.55-2.47
Term deliveriesD 12/1739 (0.7) 32/6531 (0.5) 1.41; 0.73-2.74 1.41; 0.73-2.74 1.37; 0.70-2.66
Vaginal delivery 10/1584 (0.6) 30/6063 (0.5) 1.28; 0.63-2.61 1.28; 0.63-2.62 1.25; 0.61-2.56

AIn Model A we adjusted for duration of breastfeeding and age at gluten introduction. Children with complete data on breastfeeding and gluten introduction were included in the analyses (n varied between 7647 and 8729).

BIn Model B we adjusted for any parent-reported infection during the child’s first year of life, maternal education level as well as duration of breastfeeding and age at gluten introduction. Children with complete data on breastfeeding, gluten introduction as well as education level were included in the analyses (n varied between 7622 and 8698).

CExcluding individuals with a first-degree relative with celiac disease (n = 105), type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 202) or both celiac disease and type 1 diabetes (n = 9).

DFull-term, ≥37 gestational weeks.

Hazard ratios (HR) estimated through Cox regression. Follow-up from birth.

Mårild et al.

Mårild et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2014 14:75   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-75

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