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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Effect of gluten free diet on immune response to gliadin in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Giacomo Caio123, Umberto Volta123*, Francesco Tovoli123 and Roberto De Giorgio123

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy

2 Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy

3 Centro di Ricerca Bio-Medica Applicata (C.R.B.A.), St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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BMC Gastroenterology 2014, 14:26  doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-26

Published: 13 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring in a few hours/days after gluten and/or other wheat protein ingestion and rapidly improving after exclusion of potential dietary triggers. There are no established laboratory markers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, although a high prevalence of first generation anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class has been reported in this condition. This study was designed to characterize the effect of the gluten-free diet on anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Methods

Anti-gliadin antibodies of both IgG and IgA classes were assayed by ELISA in 44 non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 40 celiac disease patients after 6 months of gluten-free diet.

Results

The majority of non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (93.2%) showed the disappearance of anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class after 6 months of gluten-free diet; in contrast, 16/40 (40%) of celiac patients displayed the persistence of these antibodies after gluten withdrawal. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients anti-gliadin antibodies IgG persistence after gluten withdrawal was significantly correlated with the low compliance to gluten-free diet and a mild clinical response.

Conclusions

Anti-gliadin antibodies of the IgG class disappear in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reflecting a strict compliance to the gluten-free diet and a good clinical response to gluten withdrawal.

Keywords:
Anti gliadin antibodies; Non-celiac gluten sensitivity; Celiac disease