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Open Access Research article

Age-of-onset-dependent influence of NOD2 gene variants on disease behaviour and treatment in Crohn’s disease

Carsten Posovszky1*, Veronika Pfalzer1, Georgia Lahr1, Jan Hendrik Niess2, Jochen Klaus2, Benjamin Mayer4, Klaus-Michael Debatin1 and Georg BT von Boyen3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Eythstr. 24, Ulm, 89075, Germany

2 Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 24, Ulm, 89081, Germany

3 Medical department of the Academic Clinic Sigmaringen, Hohenzollernstr. 40, Sigmaringen, 72488, Germany

4 Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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BMC Gastroenterology 2013, 13:77  doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-77

Published: 2 May 2013

Abstract

Background

Influence of genetic variants in the NOD2 gene may play a more important role in disease activity, behaviour and treatment of pediatric- than adult-onset Crohn’s disease (CD).

Methods

85 pediatric- and 117 adult-onset CD patients were tested for the three main NOD2 CD-associated variants (p.R702W, p.G908R and p.10007fs) and clinical data of at least two years of follow-up were compared regarding disease behaviour and activity, response to therapy and bone mineral density (BMD).

Results

Chronic active and moderate to severe course of CD is associated in patients with pediatric-onset (p=0.0001) and NOD2 variant alleles (p=0.0001). In pediatric-onset CD the average PCDAI-Score was significantly higher in patients carrying NOD2 variants (p=0.0008). In addition, underweight during course of the disease (p=0.012) was associated with NOD2 variants. Interestingly, osteoporosis was found more frequently in patients carrying NOD2 variant alleles (p=0.033), especially in pediatric-onset CD patients with homozygous NOD2 variants (p=0.037). Accordingly, low BMD in pediatric-onset CD is associated with a higher PCDAI (p=0.0092), chronic active disease (p=0.0148), underweight at diagnosis (p=0.0271) and during follow-up (p=0.0109). Furthermore, pediatric-onset CD patients with NOD2 variants are more frequently steroid-dependent or refractory (p=0.048) and need long-term immunosuppressive therapy (p=0.0213).

Conclusions

These data suggests that the presence of any of the main NOD2 variants in CD is associated with osteoporosis and an age of onset dependent influence towards underweight, higher disease activity and a more intensive immunosuppressive therapy. This observation supports the idea for an early intensive treatment strategy in children and adolescent CD patients with NOD2 gene variants.

Keywords:
Crohn’s disease; NOD2; CARD 15; Osteoporosis; Pediatric-onset