Table 1

Demographic, clinical, psychological, and heart rate variability characteristics
Characteristics

Healthy control

(N = 55)

Child-Pugh class p Post-hoc
A (N = 43) B (N = 58) C (N = 24)
Demographic
Age, year 58.0 ± 11.8 56.6 ± 12.0 58.6 ± 11.1 60.7 ± 12.1 0.578
Gender, Male (%) 29 (52.7) 25 (58.1) 36 (62.1) 12 (50.0) 0.680
Clinical
Child-Pugh score 5.6 ± 0.5 7.9 ± 0.8 10.5 ± 0.9 <0.001 A < B < C
Duration of illness, year 3.2 ± 3.4 3.1 ± 4.0 3.5 ± 3.6 0.940
Viral hepatitis, N (%) 32 (74.4) 37 (63.8) 14 (58.3) 0.346
Alcoholism, N (%) 1 (2.3) 8 (13.8) 5 (20.8) 0.048 A < B < C
Parasite, N (%) 2 (4.7) 1 (1.7) 2 (8.3) 0.368
Autoimmune, N (%) 2 (4.7) 3 (5.2) 0 (0) 0.533
Hepatic-encephalopathy, N (%) 0 (0) 5 (8.6) 2 (8.4) 0.143
Ascites, N (%) 3 (7.0) 21 (36.2) 21 (87.5) <0.001 A < B < C
Albumin, g/L 35.4 ± 4.5 26.8 ± 4.9 26.2 ± 4.7 <0.001 A > B = C
ALT, U/L 46.7 ± 44.7 39.3 ± 34.1 59.7 ± 77.7 0.233
AST, U/L 40.2 ± 21.7 57.5 ± 34.5 79.9 ± 54.2 <0.001 A = B < C
GGT, U/L 71.2 ± 87.0 68.0 ± 69.4 95.8 ± 105.6 0.384
ALP, U/L 102.4 ± 60.6 114.2 ± 56.7 135.0 ± 59.9 0.105
T-Bil, μmol/L 23.2 ± 7.4 42.3 ± 38.8 91.9 ± 47.1 <0.001 A < B < C
D-Bil, μmol/L 6.4 ± 3.2 14.1 ± 21.3 44.3 ± 33.9 <0.001 A = B < C
INR 1.24 ± 0.14 1.66 ± 1.68 1.69 ± 0.36 0.185
Psychological measurements
PSQI 6.4 ± 3.2 7.6 ± 4.6 10.0 ± 5.2 0.007 A = B < C
HAMD 10.0 ± 10.4 11.2 ± 10.2 17.4 ± 9.6 0.017 A = B < C
HAMA 5.8 ± 4.9 6.6 ± 5.9 8.8 ± 6.2 0.125
Heart rate variability
Mean heart rate, beats/minute 84.4 ± 11.8 75.4 ± 11.0 80.1 ± 14.0 83.8 ± 16.7 0.011 H > A
SDNN, ms 42.9 ± 15.1 34.7 ± 15.3 33.3 ± 20.5 22.8 ± 13.8 <0.001 H = A = B > C
RMSSD, ms 28.2 ± 10.1 29.7 ± 14.8 27.8 ± 19.8 18.3 ± 11.7 0.035 H = A = B > C
VLF power, ln(ms2/Hz) 7.58 ± 0.84 6.95 ± 0.96 6.60 ± 1.37 6.19 ± 1.22 0.051
LF power, ln(ms2/Hz) 6.99 ± 0.84 6.33 ± 1.12 5.84 ± 1.19 5.21 ± 1.48 <0.001 H = A > B > C
HF power, ln(ms2/Hz) 6.56 ± 0.88 6.22 ± 1.17 5.81 ± 1.26 4.91 ± 1.60 0.044 H = A = B > C
LF/HF ratio 1.67 ± 0.65 1.39 ± 0.98 1.29 ± 0.87 1.76 ± 1.42 0.086
DFA, α 0.80 ± 0.10 0.77 ± 0.15 0.77 ± 0.17 0.83 ± 0.13 0.340
DFA, α1 1.14 ± 0.18 0.91 ± 0.27 0.81 ± 0.31 0.89 ± 0.25 <0.001 H > A = B = C
DFA, α2 0.94 ± 0.15 0.94 ± 0.22 0.98 ± 0.23 1.02 ± 0.20 0.384

Post-hoc: (H) healthy control; (A) Child-Pugh Class A; (B) Child-Pugh Class B; (C) Child-Pugh Class C; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GGT: Gamma-Glutamyltransferase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; T-Bil: Total bilirubin; D-Bil: Direct bilirubin; INR: International normalized ratio of blood coagulation; PSQI: Pittsburgh sleep quality index; HAMD: Hamilton rating scale for depression; HAMA: Hamilton rating scale for anxiety; DFA: Detrended fluctuation analysis.

Ko et al.

Ko et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2013 13:18   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-18

Open Data