Table 6

The effects of alcohol drinking on the liver function tests by multivariable analysesa
n Total cholesterol, g/dL Total protein, g/dL Albumin, g/dL Alkaline phosphatase, IU/L AST, IU/L ALT, IU/L Ln(GGT) Total bilirubin, mg/dL
1) History of alcohol drinking
None drinker 173 200.2 (192.0, 208.3) 7.13 (7.04, 7.21) 4.46 (4.41, 4.52) 68.6 (64.3, 72.9) 25.8 (23.0, 28.5) 28.7 (24.8, 32.7) 3.27 (3.13, 3.41) 1.00 (0.91, 1.10)
Past drinker, quit 19 189.2 (172.2, 206.4) 7.13 (6.94, 7.31) 4.49 (4.39, 4.60) 58.0 (49.2, 66.9) * 29.3 (23.5, 35.1) 28.6 (20.3, 37.0) 3.10 (2.81, 3.40) 1.00 (0.80, 1.19)
Current drinker 308 195.5 (188.7, 202.3) 7.08 (7.01, 7.16) 4.43 (4.39, 4.48) 64.0 (60.4, 67.5) * 25.0 (22.8, 27.3) 27.3 (24.0, 30.6) 3.43 (3.31, 3.55) * 1.07 (0.99, 1.14)
p for trend 500 0.269 0.291 0.225 0.037 0.514 0.441 0.016 0.156
2) Daily amount of alcohol (g)
No 180 199.8 (191.7, 207.9) 7.13 (7.05, 7.22) 4.46 (4.41, 4.52) 68.2 (63.9, 72.4) 26.7 (24.0, 29.5) 29.1 (35.1, 33.0) 3.23 (3.10, 3.37) 0.99 (0.89, 1.08)
Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 290 194.1 (187.3, 200.9) 7.07 (7.00, 7.15) 4.44 (4.40, 4.48) 62.8 (59.3, 66.3) * 24.2 (21.9, 26.5) 26.3 (23.0, 29.6) 3.31 (3.20, 3.43) 1.06 (0.98, 1.13)
Heavy (≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 30 199.2 (185.8, 212.5) 7.15 (7.01, 7.30) 4.45 (4.37, 4.54) 66.8 (59.9, 73.8) 30.4 (25.9, 34.9) 32.8 (26.3, 39.3) 4.00 (3.77, 4.22) * 1.14 (0.99, 1.29)
p for trend 500 0.412 0.593 0.471 0.111 0.963 0.939 <0.001 0.041
3) Duration of alcohol drinking (years)
<10 258 195.7 (188.1, 203.3) 7.12 (7.04, 7.20) 4.46 (4.41, 4.51) 67.1 (36.1, 71.1) 25.6 (23.0, 28.1) 26.7 (23.0, 30.4) 3.22 (3.09, 3.35) 1.00 (0.92, 1.09)
≥ 10 236 197.1 (190.1, 204.2) 7.10 (7.02, 7.17) 4.45 (4.41, 4.50) 63.1 (59.4, 66.8) 25.7 (23.3, 28.1) 28.7 (25.3, 32.5) 3.46 (3.34, 3.58) * 1.08 (1.00, 1.16)
p for trend 494 0.725 0.616 0.807 0.057 0.918 0.289 0.001 0.111
4) Lifetime amount of alcohol (x103g)
Never 173 200.1 (191.8, 208.4) 7.13 (7.04, 7.22) 4.47 (4.42, 4.52) 68.7 (64.3, 73.0) 25.5 (22.7, 28.3) 28.4 (24.4, 32.5) 3.20 (3.06, 3.34) 1.00 (0.90, 1.09)
Mild (<100 x103 g for male, <35 x103 g for female) 185 193.0 (185.4, 200.6) 7.10 (7.02, 7.18) 4.56 (4.41, 4.50) 64.3 (60.3, 68.3) * 24.5 (22.0, 27.1) 27.5 (23.8, 31.2) 3.24 (3.11, 3.37) 1.07 (0.99, 1.09)
Moderate (100–200 x103 g for male, 35–70 x103 g for female) 40 203.6 (191.4, 215.8) 7.00 (6.87, 7.13) 4.44 (4.36, 4.51) 59.9 (53.5, 66.2) * 23.6 (19.5, 27.7) 23.4 (17.4, 29.3) 3.35 (3.14, 3.56) 0.97 (0.83, 1.11)
Heavy (≥200 x103 g for male, ≥70 x103 g for female) 96 195.4 (186.5, 204.3) 7.12 (7.02, 7.21) 4.44 (4.38, 4.50) 62.6 (58.0, 67.3) * 27.7 (24.7, 30.7) 38.8 (24.5, 33.1) 3.68 (3.53, 3.83) * 1.08 (0.98, 1.18)
p for trend 494 0.679 0.618 0.329 0.026 0.237 0.929 <0.001 0.316

Abbreviation:AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.

a Data are presented as mean (95% C.I.). Estimated mean and 95% CI were calculated by using multivariable linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, regular medication, daily coffee drinking (none, < 1 cup, 1–2 cups, ≥ 3 cups) and smoking (none, < 0.5 pack, 0.5-1 pack, > 1 packs) amounts.

*P-value <0.05 compared to none or never drinkers.

Jang et al.

Jang et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145

Open Data