Table 5

The effects of smoking on the liver function tests by multivariable analysesa
n Total cholesterol, g/dL Total protein, g/dL Albumin, g/dL Alkaline phosphatase, IU/L AST, IU/L ALT, IU/L Ln(GGT) Total bilirubin, mg/dL
1) History of smoking
None smoker 262 199.3 (192.1, 206.6) 7.25 (7.18, 7.33) 4.52 (4.47, 4.56) 65.2 (61.4, 69.0) 24.1 (21.7, 26.5) 26.0 (22.6, 29.5) 3.35 (3.23, 3.48) 1.07 (0.99, 1.15)
Past smoker, quitted 111 196.0 (186.6, 205.4) 7.17 (7.07, 7.27) 4.47 (4.41, 4.53) 63.3 (58.4, 68.2) 28.7 (25.6, 31.8) * 31.4 (27.0, 35.9) * 3.50 (3.35, 3.66) 1.15 (1.05, 1.26)
Current smoker 119 200.6 (191.4, 209.9) 7.02 (6.92, 7.11) * 4.41 (4.35, 4.46) * 69.8 (65.0, 74.6) 27.9 (24.9, 30.9) * 30.0 (35.6, 34.4) 3.58 (3.43, 3.73) * 1.02 (0.91, 1.12)
p for trend 492 0.672 <0.001 0.001 0.04 0.074 0.213 0.014 0.185
2) Daily amount of smoking (pack/day)
No 262 198.7 (191.3, 206.0) 7.26 (7.19, 7.34) 4.53 (4.48, 4.57) 64.9 (61.1, 68.7) 24.0 (21.6, 26.6) 26.0 (22.4, 29.5) 3.34 (3.22, 3.46) 1.07 (0.99, 1.16)
<0.5 76 197.8 (187.8, 207.8) 7.11 (7.00, 7.21) * 4.46 (4.40, 4.53) 65.0 (59.8, 70.3) 29.6 (26.3, 33.0) * 31.7 (26.9, 36.6) * 3.53 (3.36, 3.69) 1.11 (1.00, 1.22)
0.5-1 96 196.9 (186.9, 206.9) 7.06 (6.95, 7.17) * 4.42 (4.35, 4.48) * 69.1 (63.9, 74.3) 27.7 (24.3, 31.0) 31.3 (26.4, 36.1) 3.55 (3.39, 3.72) * 1.06 (0.95, 1.18)
> 1 39 197.5 (184.8, 210.1) 7.05 (6.92, 7.18) * 4.40 (4.32, 4.48) * 64.8 (58.1, 71.4) 27.1 (22.9, 31.3) 28.6 (22.5, 34.8) 3.64 (3.42, 3.85) * 0.99 (0.85, 1.14)
p for trend 473 0.806 0.002 0.001 0.502 0.265 0.319 0.013 0.327
3) Lifetime amount of smoking (pack*year)
Never 262 198.0 (190.5, 205.6) 7.27 (7.19, 7.35) 4.53 (4.48, 4.58) 65.2 (61.2, 69.1) 24.9 (22.7, 27.1) 26.2 (22.7, 29.7) 3.35 (3.22, 3.47) 1.07 (0.99, 1.16)
< 10 59 194.7 (183.9, 205.5) 7.08 (6.96, 7.19) * 4.44 (4.37, 4.51) * 68.3 (62.7, 74.0) 28.5 (25.4, 31.6) * 30.7 (25.7, 35.7) 3.52 (3.34, 3.70) 1.10 (0.98, 1.22)
10 - 20 57 199.7 (187.8, 211.6) 7.08 (6.95, 7.21) * 4.45 (4.37, 4.53) 71.6 (65.4, 77.7) 27.6 (24.2, 31.0) 28.4 (22.8, 33.9) 3.56 (3.36, 3.75) 1.12 (0.98, 1.25)
≥ 20 55 198.9 (187.2, 210.6) 6.99 (6.97, 7.12) * 4.38 (4.31, 3.36) * 66.1 (60.0, 72.2) 28.0 (24.7, 31.4) 33.1 (27.7, 38.6) * 3.59 (3.40, 3.78) * 0.95 (0.82, 1.08)
p for trend 433 0.755 <0.001 0.002 0.611 0.144 0.051 0.029 0.153

Abbreviation:AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.

a Data are presented as mean (95% C.I.). Estimated mean and 95% CI were calculated by using multivariable linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, regular medication, daily alcohol (none, M < 60 g or F < 20 g, M ≥ 60 g or F ≥ 20 g) and coffee (none, < 1 cup, 1–2 cups, ≥ 3 cups) drinking amounts.

*P-value <0.05 compared to none or never drinkers.

Jang et al.

Jang et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145

Open Data