Table 4

The effects of coffee consumption on the liver function tests by multivariable analysesa
n Total cholesterol, g/dL Total protein, g/dL Albumin, g/dL Alkaline phosphatase, IU/L AST, IU/L ALT, IU/L Ln(GGT) Total bilirubin, mg/dL
1) History of coffee
None drinker 37 197.0 (184.4, 209.6) 7.24 (7.11, 7.48) 4.52 (4.44, 4.60) 68.7 (62.0, 75.1) 26.6 (22.2, 30.9) 28.8 (22.7, 35.0) 3.51 (3.30, 3.72) 1.01 (0.87, 1.15)
Past drinker, quitted 19 189.8 (173.3, 206.4) 7.20 (7.02, 7.37) 4.52 (4.42, 4.63) 72.7 (64.1, 81.3) 25.8 (20.1, 31.4) 27.5 (19.4, 35.6) 3.47 (3.19, 3.75) 0.99 (0.80, 1.18)
Current drinker 436 198.9 (192.2, 205.6) 7.07 (7.00, 7.14) * 4.42 (4.38, 4.46) * 63.9 (60.4, 67.4) 26.6 (24.4, 28.9) 29.0 (25.7, 32.2) 3.52 (3.40, 3.63) 1.08 (1.00, 1.15)
p for trend 492 0.528 0.003 0.003 0.042 0.898 0.879 0.859 0.221
2) Daily amount of coffee consumption (cups/day)
No 42 195.7 (183.7, 207.7) 7.26 (7.13, 7.38) 4.53 (4.45, 4.61) 70.5 (64.2, 76.7) 26.5 (22.5, 30.5) 28.9 (23.1, 34.7) 3.51 (3.31, 3.71) 1.02 (0.88, 1.15)
<1 107 196.4 (187.5, 205.4) 7.10 (7.00, 7.20) * 4.43 (4.37, 4.48) * 65.5 (60.8, 70.2) 31.3 (28.3, 34.3)* 33.2 (28.8, 37.5) 3.54 (3.39, 3.69) 1.11 (1.01, 1.21)
1-2 223 197.8 (190.3, 205.3) 7.09 (8.01, 7.17) * 4.43 (4.38, 4.48) * 63.7 (59.8, 67.6) * 25.6 (23.1, 28.1) 27.8 (24.2, 31.4) 3.52 (3.40, 3.65) 1.09 (1.00, 1.18)
≥3 120 200.9 (192.4, 209.4) 7.04 (6.95, 7.13) * 4.42 (4.37, 4.48) * 64.1 (59.7, 68.5) * 25.1 (22.2, 27.9) 27.7 (23.6, 31.9) 3.49 (3.35, 3.63) 1.03 (0.93, 1.13)
p for trend 492 0.326 0.005 0.048 0.068 0.006 0.088 0.733 0.691
3) Duration of coffee drinking (years)
Never 37 196.6 (184.0, 209.1) 7.25 (7.11, 7.38) 4.52 (4.44, 4.60) 69.1 (62.5, 75.6) 26.6 (22.3, 30.9) 28.7 (22.5, 34.8) 3.50 (3.30, 3.71) 1.00 (0.87, 1.15)
<10 93 191.9 (182.5, 201.3) 7.06 (6.96, 7.17) * 4.45 (4.39, 4.51) 68.2 (63.3, 73.1) 27.9 (24.7, 31.1) 28.6 (23.9, 33.2) 3.43 (3.29, 3.59) 1.08 (0.97, 1.19)
11-29 299 198.9 (192.0, 205.9) 7.08 (7.00, 7.15) * 4.43 (4.38, 4.47) * 63.3 (59.6, 67.0) 26.6 (24.3, 29.0) 29.7 (26.3, 33.0) 3.55 (3.43, 3.66) 1.07 (0.99, 1.15)
≥30 59 203.0 (191.6, 214.3) 7.11 (6.99, 7.24) 4.41 (4.33, 4.48) * 65.3 (59.4, 71.2) 24.6 (20.7, 28.5) 25.1 (19.6, 30.7) 3.45 (3.26, 3.64) 1.10 (0.97, 1.23)
p for trend 488 0.132 0.144 0.013 0.046 0.295 0.633 0.642 0.396
4) Lifetime amount of coffee consumption (cups)
0 42 195.0 (183.1, 207.0) 7.25 (7.13, 7.38) 4.53 (4.45, 4.61) 70.4 (64.2, 76.6) 26.6 (22.5, 30.6) 28.9 (23.1, 34.8) 3.51 (3.30, 3.71) 1.02 (0.88, 1.15)
1-10000 233 194.2 (186.5, 201.9) 7.12 (7.04, 7.20) * 4.44 (4.39, 4.49) * 64.8 (60.8, 68.9) 29.0 (26.4, 31.6) 30.7 (27.0, 34.5) 3.53 (3.40, 3.66) 1.12 (1.03, 1.21)
10001-20000 139 198.5 (190.5, 206.5) 7.02 (6.93, 7.10) * 4.40 (4.35, 4.46) * 62.8 (58.6, 67.0) * 25.2 (22.5, 28.0) 27.9 (23.9, 31.8) 3.50 (3.37, 3.63) 1.04 (0.95, 1.13)
>20000 78 207.3 (196.5, 215.9) 7.08 (6.98, 7.19) * 4.44 (4.38, 4.50) * 65.2 (60.1, 70.3) 24.4 (21.2, 27.7) 27.2 (22.4, 31.9) 3.50 (3.34, 3.66) 1.05 (0.94, 1.16)
p for trend 492 0.029 0.005 0.046 0.155 0.015 0.18 0.737 0.428

Abbreviation:AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.

a Data are presented as mean (95% C.I.). Estimated mean and 95% CI were calculated by using multivariable linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, regular medication, daily alcohol drinking (none, M < 60 g or F < 20 g, M ≥ 60 g or F ≥ 20 g) and smoking (none, < 0.5 pack, 0.5-1 pack, > 1 packs) amounts.

*P-value <0.05 compared to none or never drinkers.

Jang et al.

Jang et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145

Open Data