Table 4

Results of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses
Analysis Sample size Outcome Cost difference (€) Effect difference ICER Distribution CE plane
PST UC (95% CI) (95%CI) NE SE SW NW
Multiply imputed analysis 88 87 HADS −2062 (−4698 ; 359) −0.2 (−3.7 ; 3.2) 8676 2% 55% 40% 3%
88 87 QALY* −2062 (−4698 ; 359) 0.03 (−0.02 ; 0.08) −65045 4% 88% 7% 1%
Complete cases 56 63 HADS −2715 (−5858 ; 77) 0.02 (−2.3 ; 2.4) −113112 1% 48% 49% 2%
53 59 QALY* −3085 (−6300 ; -171) 0.04 (−0.01 ; 0.08) −83380 2% 94% 4% 0%
NHS perspective 88 87 HADS −253 (−1149 ; 476) −0.2 (−3.7 ; 3.2) 1065 11% 45% 28% 16%
88 87 QALY* −253 (−1149 ; 476) 0.03 (−0.02 ; 0.08) −7984 23% 69% 4% 4%
Human capital approach 88 87 HADS −2397 (−5427 ; 393) −0.2 (−3.7 ; 3.2) 10084 2% 55% 40% 3%
88 87 QALY* −2397 (−5427 ; 393) 0.03 (−0.02 ; 0.08) −75597 4% 88% 7% 1%
Training costs PST excluded 88 87 HADS −2035 (5669 ; 1259) −0.2 (−3.7 ; 3.2) 8564 6% 50% 38% 6%
88 87 QALY* −2035 (5669 ; 1259) 0.03 (−0.02 ; 0.08) −64198 11% 81% 7% 1%
Per protocol analysis 41 87 HADS −3220 (−5744 ; -725) 1.5 (−1.5 ; 4.4) −2943 0% 16% 84% 0%
41 87 QALY* −3220 (−5744 ; -725) 0.03 (−0.03 ; 0.09) −137279 0% 90% 10% 0%
Observed outliers excluded 88 84 HADS −1090 (−3492 ; 1175) −0.3 (−3.8 ; 3.3) 4297 7% 49% 33% 11%
88 84 QALY* −1090 (−3492 ; 1175) 0.03 (−0.02 ; 0.08) −34498 15% 77% 5% 3%

HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; QALY = Quality-Adjusted Life-Year; NHS = National Health Service.

* adjusted for baseline utility score.

only direct costs included.

Bosmans et al.

Bosmans et al. BMC Family Practice 2012 13:98   doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-98

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