Table 1 

Renal Physiological Parameters from LowDose Dopamine MetaAnalysis 1 Day After Starting Therapy [7]. 

Effect Measure 



Parameter 
Number of Trials 
Number of Patients 
MD 
SMD 
RoM 








Urine Output 
33 
1654 
Estimate 
 
0.49 
1.24 
95% CI 
 
0.29 to 0.69 
1.14 to 1.35 

pvalue 
 
<0.001 
<0.001 

I^{2} 
 
71% 
77% 

Serum Creatinine 
32 
1807 
Estimate 
3.51 
0.28 
0.96 
95% CI 
6.71 to 0.23 
0.51 to 0.06 
0.93 to 0.99 

pvalue 
0.04 
0.01 
0.01 

I^{2} 
73% 
79% 
73% 

Creatinine Clearance 
22 
1077 
Estimate 
 
0.10 
1.06 
95% CI 
 
0.02 to 0.22 
1.01 to 1.11 

pvalue 
 
0.10 
0.02 

I^{2} 
 
0% 
0% 



The pooled effect measure results are presented along with their 95% confidence intervals and null hypothesis pvalues for each of the three renal physiological variables evaluated in the metaanalysis, urine output, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance, 1 day after the start of therapy. The degree of heterogeneity, expressed using the I^{2 }statistic for each of the pooled effect measures for each of the variables is also shown. For urine output and creatinine clearance, MD could not be used because units differed across studies. In contrast, all serum creatinine values were expressed as or could be converted to identical units (μmol/L), allowing this variable to also be analyzed using MD. Abbreviations: CI – confidence interval, I^{2 }– I^{2 }heterogeneity statistic, MD – mean difference, RoM – ratio of means, SMD – standardized mean difference 

Friedrich et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:32 doi:10.1186/14712288832 