Table 3

Results of the regression analysis for dipstick tests for the diagnosis of UTI

Univariate analysis

Multivariate model


Variable*

RDOR (95% CI)

p-value

RDOR (95% CI)

p-value


Nitrite dipstick – weighted (n = 23 studies)


Clinical review bias avoided: yes vs unclear

4.7 (1.7, 12.7)

0.004

4.7 (1.7, 12.7)

0.004

Age <5 years vs <2 years

5.8 (0.3, 101.8)

0.213

Dropped$

Age <12 years vs <2 years

2.2 (0.1, 35.8)

0.548

Dropped

Age <18 years vs <2 years

3.6 (0.9, 14.9)

0.076

Dropped

Europe vs North America

0.3 (0.1,0.9)

0.041

Dropped

Other areas vs North America

0.3 (0.1, 1.0)

0.050

Dropped


Nitrite dipstick – unweighted (n = 23 studies)


Clinical review bias avoided: yes vs unclear

3.4 (0.9, 13.7)

0.078

Dropped

Age <5 years vs <2 years

7.3 (0.9, 61.8)

0.067

Dropped

Age <12 years vs <2 years

2.9 (0.5, 18.3)

0.243

Dropped

Age <18 years vs <2 years

3.8 (1.1, 13.4)

0.039

Dropped

Europe vs North America

0.3 (0.1, 1.0)

0.044

0.3 (0.1, 1.0)

0.044

Other areas vs North America

0.3 (0.1, 1.2)

0.089

0.3 (0.1, 1.2)

0.089


LE dipstick – weighted (n = 14 studies)


No association at p < 0.10


LE dipstick – unweighted (n = 14 studies)


Test details reported: yes vs no

19.0 (1.9, 192.2)

0.017

Dropped

Age <5 years vs <2 years

5.4 (0.5, 64.2)

0.158

5.4 (0.5, 64.2)

0.158

Age <12 years vs <2 years

28.1 (2.3, 343.3)

0.015

28.1 (2.3, 343.3)

0.015

Age <18 years vs <2 years

1.3 (0.3, 4.7)

0.703

1.3 (0.3, 4.7)

0.703


Nitrite or leukocyte esterase dipstick – weighted (n = 15 studies)


Reference standard details reported

4.5 (0.9, 22.5)

0.064

Dropped

North America vs Europe

5.0 (0.8, 10.5)

0.076

Dropped

North America vs Other areas

1.1 (0.28, 5.0)

0.854

Dropped


Nitrite or leukocyte esterase dipstick – unweighted (n = 15 studies)


No association at p < 0.10


*Only items that showed moderate evidence (p < 0.10) for an association with the DOR in the univariate analysis are included.

$Items were dropped where there were too few studies in one category to allow a coefficient to be calculated.

Westwood et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:20   doi:10.1186/1471-2288-5-20

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