Figure 1.

Directed acyclic graph illustrating time-dependent confounding by blood pressure in the treatment of hypertension. Abbreviations: →, causal effect; BP0, blood pressure at time 0; BP1, blood pressure at time 1; T0, antihypertensive treatment at time 0; T1, antihypertensive treatment at time 1; Y, cardiovascular event.

Gerhard et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012 12:119   doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-119
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