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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials

David Moher1, Kenneth F Schulz2 and Douglas G Altman3

Author Affiliations

1 University of Ottawa, Thomas C. Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews, Ottawa, Canada

2 Family Health International and Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

3 ICRF Medical Statistics Group and Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford, UK for the CONSORT Group

BMC Medical Research Methodology 2001, 1:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2288-1-2

Published: 20 April 2001

Abstract

To comprehend the results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis and interpretation. That goal can only be achieved through complete transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational efforts, the reporting of RCTs needs improvement. Investigators and editors developed the original CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to help authors improve reporting by using a checklist and flow diagram. The revised CONSORT statement presented in this paper incorporates new evidence and addresses some criticisms of the original statement.

The checklist items pertain to the content of the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. The revised checklist includes 22-items selected because empirical evidence indicates that not reporting the information is associated with biasedestimates of treatment effect or the information is essential to judge the reliability or relevance of the findings. We intended the flow diagram to depict the passage of participants through an RCT. The revised flow diagram depicts information from four stages of a trial (enrolment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and analysis). The diagram explicitly includes the number of participants, for each intervention group, included in the primary data analysis. Inclusion of these numbers allows the reader to judge whether the authors have performed an intention-to-treat analysis.

In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting of an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results.