National study of United States emergency department visits for acute pancreatitis, 1993–2003
1 Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
BMC Emergency Medicine 2007, 7:1 doi:10.1186/1471-227X-7-1Published: 22 January 2007
The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in the United States is largely unknown, particularly episodes that lead to an emergency department (ED) visit. We sought to address this gap and describe ED practice patterns.
Data were collected from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 1993 and 2003. We examined demographic factors and ED management including medication administration, diagnostic imaging, and disposition.
ED visits for acute pancreatitis increased over the study period from the 1994 low of 128,000 visits to a 2003 peak of 318,000 visits (p = 0.01). The corresponding ED visit rate per 10,000 U.S. population also increased from 4.9 visits (95%CI, 3.1–6.7) to 10.9 (95%CI, 7.6–14.3) (p = 0.01). The average age for patients making ED visits for acute pancreatitis during the study period was 49.7 years, 54% were male, and 27% were black. The ED visit rate was higher among blacks (14.7; 95%CI, 11.9–17.5) than whites (5.8; 95%CI, 5.0–6.6). At 42% of ED visits, patients did not receive analgesics. At 10% of ED visits patients underwent CT or MRI imaging, and at 13% of visits they underwent ultrasound testing. Two-thirds of ED visits resulted in hospitalization. Risk factors for hospitalization were older age (multivariate odds ratio for each increasing decade 1.5; 95%CI, 1.3–1.8) and white race (multivariate odds ratio 2.3; 95%CI, 1.2–4.6).
ED visits for acute pancreatitis are rising in the U.S., and ED visit rates are higher among blacks than whites. At many visits analgesics are not administered, and diagnostic imaging is rare. There was greater likelihood of admission among whites than blacks. The observed race disparities in ED visit and admission rates merit further study.