Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in a remote rural community of Sindhuli district, Nepal

Raja Ram Dhungana1*, Surya Devkota2, Mahesh Kumar Khanal3, Yadav Gurung4, Rajendra Kumar Giri5, Ram Krishna Parajuli1, Anup Adhikari6, Suira Joshi7, Barsha Hada8 and Arun Shayami2

Author Affiliations

1 Nepal Family Development Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Manmohan Cardiothoracic, Vascular and Transplant Centre, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

3 Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4 Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

5 Ministry of Health and Population, Kathmandu, Nepal

6 Youth Vision Central office Bhanimandal, Lalitpur, Nepal

7 Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

8 Nature Care Hospital, Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014, 14:92  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-92

Published: 28 July 2014



Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is emerging as a public health menace among low and middle income countries. It has particularly affected the poorest. However, there is paucity of information about CVD risk factors profile among Nepalese rural communities where the majority of people live in poverty. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in an outback community of Nepal.


We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Tinkanya Village Development Committee (VDC), Sindhuli between January and March, 2014. Total 406 participants of age 20 to 50 years were selected randomly. Data were collected using WHO-NCD STEPwise approach questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS V.16.0 and R i386 2.15.3 software.


The mean age of participants was 36.2 ± 9 years. Majority of participants (76.3%) were from lower socio-economic class, Adibasi/Janajati (63.1%), and without formal schooling (46.3%). Smoking was present in 28.6%, alcohol consumption in 47.8%, insufficient fruits and vegetables intake in 96.6%, insufficient physical activity in 48.8%; 25.6% had high waist circumference, 37.4% had overweight and obesity. Average daily salt intake per capita was 14.4 grams ±4.89 grams. Hypertension was detected in 12.3%. It had an inverse relationship with education and socio-economic status. In binary logistic regression analysis, age, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and daily salt intake were identified as significant predictors of hypertension.


Present study showed high prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, daily salt intake, overweight and obesity and hypertension among remote rural population suggesting higher risk for developing CVD in future. Nepalese rural communities, therefore, are in need of population-wide comprehensive intervention approaches for reducing CVD health risk behaviors.

Behavioral risk factors; Cardiovascular diseases; Nepal; Rural community