Table 2

Differential effects of exercise mode on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and anthropometric and cardiometabolic profiles over time
Modified intention-to-treat analysis (N = 92) Per-protocol analysis (N = 49)
Mean (SD) Pa Mean (SD) Pa
Aerobic (n = 39) Resistance (n = 26) Combination (n = 27) Aerobic (n = 20) Resistance (n = 14) Combination (n = 15)
FMD (%) .792 .847
 3 M 11.28 (3.50) 10.32 (3.80) 11.02 (3.49) 11.51 (4.02) 10.75 (3.67) 11.32 (3.37)
 6 M 11.55 (3.80) 11.22 (4.43) 11.10 (3.40) 12.38 (4.43) 11.02 (4.39) 11.46 (3.74)
 9 M 11.08 (4.05) 10.89 (4.33) 12.41 (4.27) 11.34 (4.88) 10.05 (4.11) 13.18 (4.34)
 12 M 10.70 (3.75) 11.54 (4.99) 11.30 (4.04) 10.56 (4.15) 11.26 (5.49) 11.20 (4.09)
PWV (m/sec) .585 .732
 3 M 7.91 (1.18) 7.62 (1.16) 8.11 (1.05) 7.51 (0.77) 7.49 (0.82) 7.81 (1.04)
 6 M 7.83 (1.31) 7.52 (1.15) 7.76 (1.04) 7.36 (0.94) 7.34 (0.75) 7.37 (0.98)
 9 M 7.94 (1.32) 7.70 (1.18) 7.96 (1.01) 7.53 (1.15) 7.60 (0.83) 7.59 (1.02)
 12 M 7.88 (1.30) 7.74 (1.17) 7.96 (0.89) 7.45 (1.00) 7.67 (0.81) 7.61 (0.80)
IMT (mm) .574 .379
 3 M 0.71 (0.19) 0.72 (0.17) 0.66 (0.10) 0.74 (0.24) 0.72 (0.19) 0.65 (0.09)
 6 M 0.68 (0.15) 0.67 (0.14) 0.64 (0.12) 0.71 (0.18) 0.65 (0.14) 0.65 (0.13)
 9 M 0.69 (0.14) 0.69 (0.14) 0.67 (0.10) 0.73 (0.16) 0.69 (0.13) 0.67 (0.10)
 12 M 0.70 (0.14) 0.70 (0.13) 0.67 (0.11) 0.73 (0.15) 0.71 (0.11) 0.68 (0.12)
Body weight (kg) .539 .894
 3 M 71.11 (10.69) 67.20 (9.36) 72.62 (12.06) 69.48 (11.63) 64.19 (5.59) 69.06 (8.69)
 6 M 69.48 (11.70) 65.70 (9.45) 71.30 (12.25) 67.14 (12.84) 62.71 (6.27) 66.93 (7.74)
 9 M 69.31 (11.81) 65.60 (9.29) 71.69 (12.25) 65.25 (8.75) 62.64 (6.26) 67.15 (7.87)
 12 M 69.34 (11.84) 65.79 (9.34) 71.75 (12.63) 67.23 (12.70) 62.99 (6.57) 67.25 (8.98)
Lean body mass (kg) .717 .637
 3 M 45.41 (4.96) 44.44 (5.09) 45.94 (4.95) 44.49 (5.88) 43.50 (4.92) 44.60 (3.81)
 6 M 45.06 (5.28) 44.46 (4.90) 45.90 (4.83) 44.95 (6.34) 43.62 (4.69) 44.38 (3.53)
 9 M 45.03 (5.18) 44.30 (5.02) 45.90 (4.62) 44.25 (4.62) 43.62 (5.05) 44.36 (3.24)
 12 M 44.94 (5.14) 44.29 (4.73) 45.74 (4.76) 44.91 (6.04) 43.61 (4.48) 44.07 (3.45)
WC (cm) .790 .825
 3 M 93.44 (8.06) 90.14 (8.04) 94.42 (11.36) 91.32 (8.00) 87.26 (4.72) 90.41 (7.11)
 6 M 91.39 (9.41) 87.87 (8.56) 92.83 (12.00) 88.59 (9.67) 84.54 (5.25) 87.46 (7.38)
 9 M 90.77 (9.82) 88.12 (8.11) 93.61 (11.68) 87.61 (8.99) 85.21 (4.68) 88.39 (6.99)
 12 M 91.27 (9.33) 88.78 (7.98) 94.09 (11.58) 89.18 (9.24) 86.44 (4.97) 89.28 (7.33)
Systolic BP (mmHg) .935 .838
 3 M 115.36 (15.84) 113.10 (11.99) 113.94 (17.98) 114.18 (12.81) 109.07 (9.46) 110.43 (13.70)
 6 M 113.06 (15.46) 112.37 (10.23) 112.74 (17.79) 111.03 (14.66) 111.29 (12.10) 107.53 (11.93)
 9 M 114.62 (14.55) 113.21 (9.53) 112.48 (17.42) 113.33 (13.19) 110.79 (8.74) 106.60 (8.01)
 12 M 113.95 (14.41) 111.94 (10.29) 112.91 (18.64) 112.03 (12.17) 108.43 (9.49) 107.37 (12.45)
TC (mg/dL) .517 .689
 3 M 197.11 1(44.28) 192.13 (32.70) 201.30 (34.03) 205.07 (51.68) 185.94 (28.42) 191.34 (38.60)
 6 M 195.14 (36.26) 192.95 (35.23) 202.67 (38.54) 198.05 (39.55) 186.59 (28.53) 190.07 (42.89)
 9 M 201.65 (37.10) 202.18 (40.98) 207.30 (38.77) 205.51 (40.42) 203.40 (41.73) 195.81 (43.64)
 12 M 198.86 (42.22) 197.64 (41.46) 201.83 (40.73) 202.53 (50.23) 193.34 (42.04) 185.39 (43.74)
LDL-C (mg/dL) .458 .300
 3 M 119.22 (38.47) 114.40 (29.22) 121.88 (36.97) 128.36 (47.15) 111.60 (31.37) 110.59 (40.99)
 6 M 116.65 (30.49) 115.46 (28.85) 124.18 (35.65) 121.73 (35.34) 110.64 (27.77) 112.96 (38.75)
 9 M 121.99 (32.78) 118.19 (39.83) 129.31 (39.32) 127.99 (37.16) 117.66 (46.93) 117.65 (42.97)
 12 M 116.85 (36.74) 116.70 (39.86) 123.48 (39.58) 123.66 (44.04) 113.70 (46.65) 106.80 (39.76)
HDL-C (mg/dL) .973 .562
 3 M 52.91 (12.29) 49.25 (12.57) 53.58 (10.09) 52.27 (12.55) 46.98 (13.77) 54.99 (11.10)
 6 M 53.74 (13.04) 53.60 q(13.93) 54.79 (10.69) 53.70 (14.45) 51.99 (16.37) 56.19 (12.54)
 9 M 54.52 (12.48) 55.68 (14.20) 56.20 (10.07) 55.78 (13.15) 56.04 (16.64) 59.19 (11.69)
 12 M 57.72 (15.15) 54.69 (13.17) 56.39 (10.35) 59.09 (14.98) 53.51 (14.94) 59.39 (11.96)
Triglycerides (mg/dL) .784
 3 M 124.90 (59.18) 142.40 (75.42) 129.23 (100.99) 122.18 (43.31) 136.77 (96.43) 128.83 (128.67)
 6 M 123.74 (71.06) 119.47 (57.73) 118.53 (56.25) 113.06 (57.94) 119.85 (69.02) 104.58 (58.74)
 9 M 125.72 (68.76) 141.51 (91.41) 108.93 (50.78) 108.70 (44.08) 148.51 (120.31) 94.87 (52.08)
 12 M 120.88 (70.84) 131.24 (82.54) 109.78 (48.56) 97.81 (38.99) 130.63 (107.88) 96.03 (48.36)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) .413 .034
 3 M 88.93 (9.87) 94.54 (19.83) 89.39 (7.69) 86.40 (7.51) 93.54 (12.40) 88.52 (7.78)
 6 M 85.80 (7.90) 91.68 (19.82) 85.67 (7.47) 83.85 (6.56) 89.71 1(12.61) 82.56 (7.86)
 9 M 84.98 (9.76) 93.16 (22.15) 84.97 (8.23) 82.33 (9.23) 94.61 (17.40) 81.33 (8.53)
 12 M 89.78 (8.28) 92.84 (22.41) 86.30 (7.22) 89.26 (7.07) 93.54 (18.33) 81.91 (5.95)*
VO2max (mL/kg/min)
 3 M 31.77 (5.45) 32.55 (5.04) 32.02 (5.41) .972 32.72 (3.92) 33.75 (4.57) 33.45 (4.91) .052
 6 M 35.05 (6.72) 34.32 (5.50) 36.36 (6.90) 36.37 (4.77) 35.59 (3.42) 39.27 (4.87)
 9 M 35.62 (6.81) 35.07 (5.89) 34.49 (5.95) 38.24 (5.48) 36.25 (5.14) 36.31 (4.17)
 12 M 34.11 (6.29) 34.61 (6.05) 34.89 (6.45) 35.41 (4.84) 35.82 (5.67) 37.04 (5.28)

aP-values for significance of interaction effects between exercise group and time via the generalized estimating equation.

FMD = flow mediated dilation; PWV = pulse wave velocity; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IMT = intima media thickness; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SD = standard deviation; TC = total cholesterol; VO2max = maximal oxygen consumption; WC = waist circumference.

*P < .05 is for a significant difference in fasting glucose levels by exercise mode at 12 months.

Choo et al.

Choo et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014 14:82   doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-82

Open Data