Table 2

Baseline characteristics and laboratory findings according to gender and BMI groupsa
Men Women
Total Normal weight Overweight Obese Total Normal weight Overweight Obese
n = 2989 n = 959 n = 1517 n = 513 p-valueb n = 1142 n = 436 n = 453 n = 253 p-valuec p-valued
Demographic characteristics
Age (years)e 61 (10) 63 (11) 61 (10) 59 (10) <0.001 63 (10) 63 (19) 64 (11) 63 (10) 0.52 <0.001
Clinical parameters
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141 (20.4) 140 (20.5) 141 (20.3) 143 (20.4) 0.03 141 (21.6) 138 (22.1) 143 (21.6) 144 (20.2) <0.01 0.94
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.8 (10.4) 79.6 (10.1) 82.2 (10.0) 84.3 (11.1) <0.001 80.0 (10.3) 78.4 (10.8) 80.9 (10.1) 81.0 (9.60) <0.001 <0.001
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 63.1 (11.8) 62.6 (12.4) 63.7 (11.1) 62.1 (12.4) <0.01 66.5 (9.81) 65.9 (10.3) 66.9 (9.21) 66.8 (9.93) 0.30 <0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
Diabetesf 361 (12.1) 97 (10.1) 158 (10.4) 106 (20.7) <0.001 135 (11.8) 26 (6.0) 51 (11.3) 58 (22.9) <0.001 0.82
Current smokerg 803 (26.9) 305 (31.8) 375 (24.8) 123 (24.0) <0.001 258 (22.7) 112 (25.7) 94 (20.8) 52 (22.7) 0.16 <0.01
Ex smokerh 1595 (53.4) 448 (46.7) 842 (55.6) 305 (59.6) <0.001 338 (29.7) 123 (28.2) 133 (29.5) 82 (32.7) 0.47 <0.001
Family history of coronary heart diseasei 844 (29.0) 258 (27.8) 417 (28.1) 169 (33.9) 0.03 409 (36.4) 159 (37.3) 156 (34.9) 94 (37.6) 0.69 <0.001
Cardiovascular history, n (%)
Previous acute myocardial infarction 1346 (45.9) 429 (44.7) 668 (44.0) 249 (48.5) 0.20 324 (28.4) 135 (31.0) 116 (25.6) 73 (28.9) 0.21 <0.001
Previous cerebrovascular disease 203 (6.9) 69 (7.2) 101 (6.7) 33 (6.4) 0.82 83 (7.3) 31 (7.1) 27 (6.0) 25 (9.9) 0.16 0.59
Previous peripheral vascular arterial disease 276 (9.2) 114 (11.9) 115 (7.6) 47 (9.2) <0.01 95 (8.3) 39 (8.9) 33 (7.3) 23 (9.1) 0.59 0.36
Previous percutaneous coronary intervention 641 (21.4) 193 (20.1) 340 (22.4) 108 (21.1) 0.39 153 (13.4) 57 (13.1) 56 (12.4) 40 (15.8) 0.42 <0.001
Previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery 394 (13.2) 116 (12.1) 205 (13.5) 73 (14.2) 0.44 83 (7.3) 34 (7.8) 33 (7.3) 16 (6.3) 0.77 <0.01
Extent of coronary artery disease at baseline as assessed by coronary angiography, n (%)
No significant coronary artery disease 538 (18.0) 179 (17.7) 280 (18.5) 88 (17.2) 0.77 492 (43.1) 197 (45.2) 187 (41.3) 108 (42.7) 0.50 <0.001
1-vessel disease 704 (23.6) 218 (22.7) 373 (24.6) 113 (22.0) 0.38 254 (22.2) 88 (20.2) 109 (24.1) 57 (22.5) 0.38 0.37
2-vessel disease 731 (24.5) 236 (24.6) 360 (23.7) 135 (26.3) 0.50 192 (16.8) 72 (16.5) 80 (17.7) 40 (15.8) 0.80 <0.001
3-vesseldisease 1016 (34.0) 335 (34.9) 504 (33.2) 177 (34.5) 0.66 204 (17.9) 79 (18.1) 77 (17.0) 48 (19.0) 0.79 <0.001
Comorbidity at baseline, n (%)
Pulmonary disease 276 (9.2) 96 (10.0) 115 (7.6) 65 (12.7) 0.04 91 (8.0) 43 (9.9) 25 (5.5) 23 (9.1) <0.01 0.20
Cancer 4 (0.1) 2 (0.20) 1 (0.10) 1 (0.20) 0.59 0 (0.0) 0 0 0 - 0.22
Medication following baseline coronary angiography, n (%)
Acetylsalisylic acid 2546 (85.2) 810 (84.5) 1306 (86.1) 430 (83.8) 0.13 830 (72.7) 304 (69.7) 332 (73.3) 194 (76.7) 0.34 <0.001
Statins 2492 (83.4) 759 (79.1) 1296 (85.4) 437 (85.2) <0.001 818 (71.6) 305 (70.0) 330 (72.8) 183 (72.3) 0.61 <0.001
β-blockers 2229 (74.6) 684 (71.3) 1155 (76.1) 390 (76.0) 0.02 765 (67.0) 286 (65.6) 301 (66.4) 178 (70.4) 0.42 <0.001
ACE inhibitors 644 (21.5) 171 (17.8) 320 (21.1) 153 (29.8) <0.001 214 (18.7) 72 (16.2) 83 (18.3) 59 (23.3) 0.08 0.05
Loop diuretics 297 (9.9) 90 (9.4) 128 (8.4) 79 (15.4) <0.001 150 (13.1) 37 (8.5) 54 (11.9) 59 (23.3) <0.001 <0.01
Coronary revascularization following baseline coronary angiography, n (%)
Percutaneous coronary intervention 1065 (35.6) 327 (34.1) 545 (35.9) 193 (37.6) 0.38 283 (24.8) 105 (24.1) 118 (26.0) 60 (23.7) 0.72 <0.001
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery 731 (24.5) 248 (25.9) 363 (23.9) 120 (23.4) 0.46 161 (14.1) 54 (12.4) 75 (16.6) 32 (12.6) 0.15 <0.001
Biochemical markers
Creatinine (μmol/L) 96.4 (31.7) 96.6 (30.5) 96.4 (34.9) 95.9 (23.3) 0.93 82.8 (26.5) 83.9 (36.7) 81.4 (14.5) 83.4 (21.5) 0.35 <0.001
eGFR (mL/min) 89.3 (17.0) 87.5 (16.6) 89.7 (16.6) 91.2 (16.9) <0.001 84.1 (17.3) 83.4 (17.6) 84.6 (16.1) 84.2 (18.7) 0.58 <0.001
CRP (mg/L) 3.66 (7.59) 3.55 (8.91) 3.58 (6.99) 4.07 (6.49) 0.39 3.79 (5.93) 2.88(5.17 3.62 (5.43) 5.66 (7.42) <0.001 0.59
Glucose (mmol/L) 6.41 (2.38) 6.08 (2.42) 6.33 (2.14) 7.26 (2.77) <0.001 6.20 (2.46) 5.60 (1.75) 6.30 (2.68) 7.06 (2.82) <0.001 0.01
HbA1c (mmol/L) 6.17 (1.39) 6.16 (1.11) 6.40 (1.52) 6.62 (1.49) <0.001 6.36 (1.38) 6.10 (1.36) 6.11 (1.37) 6.46 (1.43) <0.001 <0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.6 (1.16) 14.2 (1.21) 14.7 (1.07) 14.8 (1.16) <0.001 13.4 (1.05) 13.3 (1.04) 13.5 (1.04) 13.5 (1.05) <0.01 <0.001
ApoA1 (g/L) 1.26 (0.25) 1.31 (0.27) 1.25 (0.23) 1.20 (0.23) <0.001 1.46 (0.27) 1.49 (0.28) 1.45 (0.26 1.42 (0.27) <0.01 <0.001
ApoB (g/L) 0.90 (0.25) 0.86 (0.24) 0.90 (0.24) 0.93 (0.27) <0.001 0.92 (0.25) 0.88 (0.24) 0.94 (0.26) 0.94 (0.25) <0.01 <0.01
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.98 (1.17) 5.18 (1.12) 5.39 (1.14) 5.25 (1.16) 0.30 5.28 (1.14) 5.18 (1.12) 5.39 (1.14) 5.25 (1.16) 0.02 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.05 (1.02) 3.03 (1.01) 3.06 (0.98) 3.07 (1.13) 0.64 3.19 (1.03) 3.08 (1.02) 3.30 (1.03) 3.18 (1.04) <0.01 <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.22 (0.33) 1.33 (0.38) 1.19 (0.29) 1.09 (0.26) <0.001 1.47 (0.42) 1.57 (0.44) 1.45 (0.39) 1.34 (0.37) <0.001 <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.85 (1.28) 1.48 (0.97) 1.91 (1.30) 2.32 (1.52) <0.001 1.62 (1.03) 1.34 (0.72) 1.67 (1.18) 2.00 (1.07) <0.001 <0.001
Lp(a) (mmol/L) 0.41 (0.37) 0.43 (0.41) 0.48 (0.45) 0.47 (0.40) 0.79 0.46 (0.42) 0.43 (0.41) 0.48 (0.45) 0.47 (0.40) 0.11 <0.01
WENBIT intervention trial, n (%) 2047 (68.5) 614 (64.0) 1072 (70.7) 361 (70.4) <0.01 513 (44.9) 183 (42.0) 211 (46.6) 119 (47.0) 0.29 <0.001
B6, n (% of WENBIT participants) 1043 (34.9) 320 (52.1) 553 (51.9) 170 (47.1) 0.19 239 (20.9) 89 (48.6) 96 (45.5) 54 (45.4) 0.94 <0.001
Folate/B12, n (% of WENBIT participants) 1031 (34.5) 301 (49.0) 555 (51.8) 175 (48.5) 0.03 244 (21.4) 93 (50.8) 102 (48.3) 49 (41.2) 0.92 <0.001

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ApoA1, apolipoprotein A1; ApoB, apolipoprotein B; BMI, body mass index; CRP, c-reactive protein; eGFR, esitimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; Lp(a), lipoprotein (a).

aNormal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2).

bBased on differences between BMI groups among men, and was calculated by ANOVA for continuous variables and Chi squared test for categorical variables for differences between men and women.

cBased on differences between BMI groups among women, and was calculated by ANOVA for continuous variables and Chi squared test for categorical variables for differences between men and women.

dBased on between group differences in men vs. women, and was calculated by independent samples t-test for continuous variables and Chi squared test for categorical variables.

eMean (SD).

fIncludes DM type 1 and 2.

gSmokers included self-reported current smoking, those who quit smoking within <1 month and patients with plasma cotinine >85 ng/mL.

hPatients reported to have quit smoking > 1 month prior to inclusion.

iIncluded those reporting to have at least one 1st degree relative suffering from CAD before the age of 55 for men and 65 for women.

Borgeraas et al.

Borgeraas et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014 14:68   doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-68

Open Data