Table 1

Features of participating trials
Authors and trial name Trial type and location Objective Year N T/C Study population LDL-C at follow up LDL-C reducing percentage Treatments Follow up Main Results or Conclusion
Okazaki S [14];ESTABLISH RCT: prospective, open-label, randomized, single center study. Japan Effects of statins on changes in plaque by IVUS 2004 24/24 ACS 70/119 -44/-0.004 Ato 20 vs Diet 6 Plaque volume was sigificantly reduced in the Ato group compared with the control group.
Nissen SE [13]; REVERSAL RCT: Double-blind, randomized active control multicenter trial; USA Effects of statins (intensive or moderate) on changes in plaque by IVUS 2004 253/249 CAD 79/110 -46/-25 Ato 80 vs Pra40 18 Ato reduced progression of coronary plaque compared with Pra. Compared with baseline values, Ato had no change in atheroma burden, whereas patients treated with Pra showed progression of coronary plaque.
Tardif JC [21]; A-PLUS RCT: international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Canada, USA Effects of different dosage of avasimibe on changes in plaque by IVUS 2004 108/98/ 117/109 CAD 100/102/ 101/91 7.8/9.1/ 10.9/1.7 Ava50, 250, and 750 vs Placebo on the basis of LDL-C<125 18 Avasimibe did not favorably alter coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by IVUS.
Jensen LO [39] Open non placebo controlled serial investigation; blinded end-points. Denmark To investigate the effect of lipid lowering by simvastatin on coronary atherosclerotic plaque volumes and lumen. 2004 40 CAD 85 -46.3 Sim 40 15 Lipid-lowering therapy with Sim is associated with a significant plaque regression in coronary arteries.
Yokoyama M [15] RCT: randomized, single center. Japan Effects of statins on changes in plaque by IVUS 2005 29/30 Stable angina 87/124 -35/-0.075 Ato 10 vs Diet 6 Treatment with Ato may reduce volumes of coronary plaques.
Kawasaki M [16] RCT: randomization, open-label, single-center study. Japan Effects of statins on changes in plaque by IVUS 2005 17/18/17 Stable angina 95/102/149 -39/-32/-0.02 Ato 20, Pra 20 vs Diet 6 Treatment with Ato and Pra may not significantly reduce volumes of coronary plaques.
Tani S [33] RCT: a prospective, single-center, randomized, open trial. Japan Investigated the effects of pravastatin on the serum levels of MDA-LDL and coronary atherosclerosis. 2005 52/23 Stable angina 104/120 -20/-2.4 Pra 10-20 vs con 6 Plaque volume was sigificantly reduced in the Pra group compared with the control group.
Nissen SE [22]; ACTIVATE RCT: randomized, multicenter. USA Effects of pactimibe on changes in plaque by IVUS 2006 206/202 CAD 91/86 -9.6/-14.9 Pac100 vs Placebo 18 Pac is not an effective strategy for limiting atherosclerosis and may promote atherogenesis.
Nissen SE [37]; ASTEROID Prospective, open-label blinded end-points. USA, Germany, France, Canada Effects of Statins with different levels of LDL-C on changes in plaque by IVUS 2006 349 CAD 61 -53.2 Ros 40 24 Therapy using Ros can result in significant regression of atherosclerosis.
Yamada T [26]; REACH RCT: open-labeled, randomized, multicenter study. Japan Evaluate the effect of marked reduction of LDL-C in patients with CHD on progression of atherosclerosis. 2007 26/32 Stable angina 83/115 -43/0 Ato 5 vs Con 12 Ato treatment prevented the further progression of atherosclerosis by maintaining LDL-C below 100 mg/dl in patients with CHD.
Nissen SE [23]; ILLUSTRATE RCT: prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial. North America or Europe Effects of CETP inhibitor on changes in plaque by IVUS 2007 446/464 CAD 87/70 6.6/-13.3 Ato10-80 vs Ato+Tor 60 on the basis of LDL-C≤100 by Ato 24 The Tor was associated with a substantial increase in HDL-C and decrease in LDL–C, and there was no significant decrease in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.
Nissen SE [36]; PERISCOPE RCT: prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial. USA To compare the effects of pioglitazone, and glimepiride on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabete and CAD 2008 181/179 CAD, DM 96.1/95.6 1.8/2.2 Gli1-4 mg vs Pio 15-45 mg on bases of statins therapy 18 In patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD, treatment with Pio resulted in a significantly lower rate of progression of coronary atherosclerosis compared with Gli.
Nissen SE [35]; STRADIVARIUS RCT: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-group, parallel-group trial. North America, Europe, and Australia The effect of rimonabant on regression of coronary disease in patients with the metabolic syndrome and CAD 2008 335/341 CAD,Obesity 87.6/86.3 -4.7/-3.6 Rim 20 mg vs Placebo on bases of statins therapy 18 Rim can reduce progression of coronary plaque, and increase HDL-C levels, decrease triglyceride levels.
Hiro T [12]; JAPAN-ACS RCT: prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel group, multicenter. Japan Effects of statins on changes in plaque by IVUS 2009 127/125 ACS 84/81 -36/-36 Ato 20 vs Pit 4 10 The administration of Pit or Ato in patients with ACS equivalently resulted in significant regression of coronary plaque volume.
Takayama T; COSMOS [40] Prospective, open-label blinded end-points multicenter trial. Japan Evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on plaque volume in patients with stable CAD, including those receiving prior lipid-lowering therapy 2009 126 Stable angina 83 -38.6 Ros <20 14 Ros exerted significant regression of coronary plaque volume in Japanese patients with stable CAD.
Rodés-Cabau; ERASE [34] RCT: multicenter randomized placebo-controlled. Canada Evaluate the early effects of newly initiated statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis as evaluated by IVUS. 2009 38/36 ACS 77/63 8.5/-37 Before ACS vs After ACS <2 Newly initiated statin therapy is associated with rapid regression of coronary atherosclerosis.
Nasu K [41] Prospective and multicenter study with nonrandomized and non-blinded design, but blinded end. Japan Evaluate the effect of treatment with statins on the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques of a nonculprit vessel by serial IVUS. 2009 40/39 Stable angina 98.1/121 -32.3/-1.1 Flu 60 vs Con 12 One-year lipid-lowering therapy by Flu showed significant regression of plaque volume.
Hong MK [27] RCT: randomized control trial. Korea. Evaluated the effects of statin treatments for each component of coronary plaques. 2009 50/50 Stable angina 78/64 -34.5/-44.8 Sim 20 vs Ros 10 12 Statin treatments might be associated with significant changes in necrotic core and fibrofatty plaque volume.
Nicholls SJ; SATURN [28] RCT: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial. USA Compare the effect of these two intensive statin regimens on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. 2011 519/520 CHD 70.2/62.6 -41.5/-47.8 Ato 80 vs Ros 40 24 Maximal doses of Ros and Ato resulted in significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis.
Lee CW [29]; ARTMAP RCT: a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized comparison trial. Korea. Compared the effects of atorvastatin 20 mg/day versus rosuvastatin 10 mg/day on mild coronary atherosclerotic plaques. 2012 143/128 Stable angina 56/53 -47/-49 Ato 20 vs Ros 10 6 Usual doses of Ato and Ros induced significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-naive patients.

Abbreviations: RCT, randomized controlled trials; T, treatment group; C, control group IVUS, Intravascular ultrasound; CAD, Coronary artery disease; ACS, Acute coronary syndrome; CHD, Coronary heart disease; Ato, Atorvastatin; Ros, Rosuvastatin; Pra, Pravastatin; Pit, Pitavastatin; Sim, Simvastatin; Flu, Fluvastatin; Con, Control; Pac, Pactimibe; Tor, Torcetrapib, Ava 50, 250, 750, Avasimibe 50, 250, 750 mg; T/C, Treat/Control; Gli, Glimepiride; Pio, Pioglitazone; Rim, Rimonabant.

Gao et al.

Gao et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014 14:60   doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-60

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