Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Cardiovascular Disorders and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

Nasser M Al-Daghri123*, Khalid M Alkharfy124, Omar S Al-Attas123, Nasiruddin Khan2, Hanan A Alfawaz35, Saad A Alghanim6, Mansour A Al-Yousef7, Abdulrahman S M Al-Ajlan8 and Majed S Alokail123

Author Affiliations

1 Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2 Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3 Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4 Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

5 College of Food Science & Agriculture, Department of Food Science & Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

6 Department of Health Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

7 Health Affairs for Riyadh Region, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

8 Department of Clinical Lab Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014, 14:51  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-51

Published: 14 April 2014

Abstract

Background

To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population.

Methods

A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III).

Results

In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004].

Conclusions

The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS.

Keywords:
Gender; Socioeconomic status; Marital status; Income; Education; Saudi Arabia