Table 4

Unadjusted and adjusted relations of high carbohydrate intake with PWV in study population and control subjects
Univariate model Multivariate model1
All subjects included (n = 457) All subjects included (n = 457) CVD/ risk equivalent (n = 364) Healthy controls (n = 93)
β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
Age 6.61 (5.39 to 7.83) <0.001* 6.68 (5.42 to 7.94) <0.001* 6.27 (4.93 to 7.61) <0.001* 9.88 (5.77 to 13.99) <0.001*
Male 28.08 (1.17 to 55.00) 0.041 33.38 (8.40 to 58.36) 0.009* 23.55 (-4.46 to 51.56) 0.099 67.87 (10.17 to 125.58) 0.022*
Diabetes mellitus 18.81 (-8.19 to 45.80) 0.172 46.34 (18.93 to 73.76) 0.001* 43.18 (15.22 to 71.14) 0.003* 150.75 (-88.20 to 389.71) 0.212
Hypertension 69.97 (44.07 to 95.87) <0.001* 53.52 (27.82 to 79.21) <0.001* 58.61 (30.39 to 86.83) <0.001* 22.69 (-45.87 to 91.25) 0.511
Hyperlipidaemia 13.60 (-13.88 to 41.08) 0.331
Past or current smokers 49.39 (-67.71 to 166.48) 0.401
BMI -1.14 (-5.07 to 2.79) 0.569
Medications
Beta-blocker 22.17 (-5.02 to 49.36) 0.110 -0.90 (-27.55 to 25.75) 0.95 0.29 (-27.35 to 27.92) 0.984 -17.61 (-130.81 to 95.60) 0.757
ACEI/ARB 19.31 (-29.41 to 68.03) 0.436
Statin 6.17 (-20.43 to 32.76) 0.649
Dietary energy intake 0.003 (-0.015 to 0.020) 0.769
Saturated fatty acid -2.31 (-4.84 to 0.22) 0.074 -0.58 (-3.03 to 1.87) 0.643 0.47 (-2.42 to 3.35) 0.750 -3.39 (-8.07 to 1.28) 0.151
PUFA -2.12 (-6.71 to 2.47) 0.364
MUFA -4.97 (-2.33 to 1.33) 0.594
Fiber -0.103 (-2.28 to 2.07) 0.926
CVD/risk equivalent3 22.68 (-9.90 to 55.26) 0.172 -51.81 (-90.32 to -13.30) 0.008* - - - -
High carbohydrate diet (≧60%) 50.52 (-6.03 to 107.07) 0.080 52.46 (-3.09 to 108.01) 0.064 73.50 (10.81 to 136.19) Full Model Estimate2: 231.39 (87.19 to 375.58) 0.022* 0.003* -28.52 (-147.83 to 90.80) 0.634

CI, confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body-mass index; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid; PWV, pulse wave velocity.

1Multivariate Model, adjusted for potential confounders with p-value <0.20 based on univariate analysis.

2Full Model – Entered and adjusted for all independent variables.

3CVD/Risk Equivalent – included coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and type II diabetes mellitus without prior coronary artery disease/ischemic stroke.

*p-value<0.05.

Chan et al.

Chan et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014 14:24   doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-24

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