Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Serum TGF-β1 and SMAD3 levels are closely associated with coronary artery disease

Can Chen12, Wei Lei2, Wenjiang Chen2, Jianfeng Zhong2, Xiaoxin Gao2, Bo Li2, Huailong Wang2 and Congxin Huang1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China

2 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, China

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014, 14:18  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-18

Published: 17 February 2014



Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common diseases leading to mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is considerable debate on whether serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels are associated with long-term major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD, and to date, no study has specifically addressed levels in patients with different degrees of CAD severity.


Serum TGF-β1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) concentrations were evaluated in 279 patients with CAD and 268 controls without CAD. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of all subjects were also determined and analyzed.


TGF-β1 and SMAD3 concentrations in CAD patients were significantly higher than those in the controls. The serum TGF-β1 level in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was significantly higher than that in both stable angina pectoris (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) (p < 0.05), while there was no marked difference between levels in SAP and UAP (p > 0.05). SMAD3 levels showed no obvious difference among AMI, SAP, and UAP. TGF-β1 and SMAD3 are potential biomarkers for CAD, and may be more accurate than Lpa, ApoA1, uric acid, BUN, or triglycerides (TG).


Serum TGF-β1 and SMAD3 levels are closely associated with CAD, and may become useful biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification.

Coronary artery disease; TGF-β1; SMAD3 protein; Human; Biomarkers