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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Tobacco smoking predicts depression and poorer quality of life in heart disease

Lesley Stafford126*, Michael Berk3456 and Henry J Jackson2

Author Affiliations

1 Centre for Women’s Mental Health, Royal Women’s Hospital, Parkville, Australia

2 Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

3 School of Medicine, Deakin University, Deakin, Australia

4 ORYGEN Youth Health, Parkville, Australia

5 Mental Health Research Institute, Parkville, Australia

6 Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2013, 13:35  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-35

Published: 24 May 2013

Abstract

Background

We report on the prospective association between smoking and depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods

Prospective study of 193 patients with assessment of depression occurring 3-, 6- and 9- months (T1, 2, and 3, respectively) following discharge from hospital for a cardiac event. HRQOL was assessed at T3. T1 depression was assessed by clinical interview; T2 and T3 depression was assessed by self-report. Smoking at time of cardiac event was assessed by self-report. Multivariate analyses controlled for known demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of depression.

Results

Smoking at the time of index cardiac event increased the likelihood of being diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) at T1 by 4.30 [95% CI, 1.12-16.46; p < .05]. The likelihood of receiving a diagnosis of minor depression, dysthymia or MDD as a combined group was increased by 8.03 [95% CI, 2.35-27.46; p < .01]. Smoking did not reliably predict depression at T2 or T3 and did not reliably predict persistent depression. Smoking increased the likelihood of being classified as depressed according to study criteria at least once during the study period by 5.19 [95% CI, 1.51-17.82; p < .01]. Smoking independently predicted worse mental HRQOL.

Conclusions

The findings support a role for smoking as an independent predictor of depression in CAD patients, particularly in the first 3 months post-cardiac event. The well-established imperative to encourage smoking cessation in these patients is augmented and the findings may add to the evidence for smoking cessation campaigns in the primary prevention of depression.

Keywords:
Coronary artery disease; Depression; Smoking; Quality of life