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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Intravenous pretreatment with emulsified isoflurane preconditioning protects kidneys against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

Zhaojun Qin, En Lv*, Leyun Zhan, Xiangfei Xing, Jianli Jiang and Min Zhang

Author Affiliations

Department of Anesthesiology, Three Gorges University People’s Hospital, Yichang, China, No. 4, Hudi Street, Xiling District, Yichang 443000, Hubei, People’s Republic of China

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BMC Anesthesiology 2014, 14:28  doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-28

Published: 16 April 2014



Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a novel intravenous general anesthetic, which can provide rapid anesthetic induction and recovery. EIso preconditioning could attenuate heart, lung and liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous pretreatment with EIso would protect kidneys against I/R injury by inhibiting systemic inflammatory responses and improving renal antioxidative ability.


Rats were randomly divided into these six groups: sham, I/R, intralipid, 1, 2 or 4 ml/kg EIso. Rats were subjected to 45 min left renal pedicle occlusion followed by 3 h reperfusion after right nephrectomy. Rat were treated with intravenous 8% EIso with 1, 2 or 4 ml/kg, or 30% intralipid with 2 ml/kg for 30 min before ischemia, respectively. After reperfusion, renal functional parameters, serum mediator concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in kidney tissues were determined, and renal histopathological analysis were performed.


Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin c, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 concentrations were significantly increased after renal I/R as compared to the sham group. So was renal tissue MDA content and histological scores, but renal tissue SOD activity was decreased. Additionally, severe morphological damages were observed in these study groups. In contrast, 2 or 4 ml/kg EIso reduced serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin c, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels, decreased renal tissue MDA content and histological scores, increased serum interleukin-10 level and tissue SOD activity as compared to the I/R, intralipid and 1 ml/kg EIso groups. Renal morphological damages were alleviated after pretreatment of 2 or 4 ml/kg EIso.


Intravenous EIso produces preconditioning against renal I/R injury in rats, which might be mediated by attenuating inflammation and increasing antioxidation ability.

Emulsified isoflurane; Acute renal ischemia; Preconditioning; Inflammation; Oxidative stress