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Open Access Research article

RACK1 genes regulate plant development with unequal genetic redundancy in Arabidopsis

Jianjun Guo and Jin-Gui Chen*

Author Affiliations

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada

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BMC Plant Biology 2008, 8:108  doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-108

Published: 23 October 2008



RACK1 is a versatile scaffold protein in mammals, regulating diverse developmental processes. Unlike in non-plant organisms where RACK1 is encoded by a single gene, Arabidopsis genome contains three RACK1 homologous genes, designated as RACK1A, RACK1B and RACK1C, respectively. Previous studies indicated that the loss-of-function alleles of RACK1A displayed multiple defects in plant development. However, the functions of RACK1B and RACK1C remain elusive. Further, the relationships between three RACK1 homologous genes are unknown.


We isolated mutant alleles with loss-of-function mutations in RACK1B and RACK1C, and examined the impact of these mutations on plant development. We found that unlike in RACK1A, loss-of-function mutations in RACK1B or RACK1C do not confer apparent defects in plant development, including rosette leaf production and root development. Analyses of rack1a, rack1b and rack1c double and triple mutants, however, revealed that rack1b and rack1c can enhance the rack1a mutant's developmental defects, and an extreme developmental defect and lethality were observed in rack1a rack1b rack1c triple mutant. Complementation studies indicated that RACK1B and RACK1C are in principle functionally equivalent to RACK1A. Gene expression studies indicated that three RACK1 genes display similar expression patterns but are expressed at different levels. Further, RACK1 genes positively regulate each other's expression.


These results suggested that RACK1 genes are critical regulators of plant development and that RACK1 genes function in an unequally redundant manner. Both the difference in RACK1 gene expression level and the cross-regulation are likely the molecular determinants of their unequal genetic redundancy.