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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

José Díaz-Riquelme1, Jérôme Grimplet1, José M Martínez-Zapater1 and María J Carmona2*

Author Affiliations

1 Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (CSIC, Universidad de La Rioja, Gobierno de La Rioja), CCT, C/ Madre de Dios 51, Logroño, 26006, Spain

2 Departamento de Biotecnología, Escuela Técnica Superior Ingenieros Agrónomos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, Madrid, 28040, Spain

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BMC Plant Biology 2012, 12:181  doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-181

Published: 5 October 2012

Abstract

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.

Keywords:
Grapevine; Bud development; Dormancy; Flowering; Flower development; Transcriptomics