PTI and ETI markers in G. cichoracearum-infected Col-0, Te-0, and Kas-1 plants. (a) ROS accumulation revealed by the presence of brown-reddish precipitates in tissues treated with 3,3 diaminobenzidine (DAB). Fungal structures are stained with trypan blue. Haustoria (arrows) and attempted fungal penetration sites (arrowheads) are indicated. Bars: 30 μm. (b) Callose deposition evaluated by confocal microscopy of aniline blue stained leaves. Callose accumulates at the cell wall of Kas-1 epidermal cells contacting conidia (C; arrowheads). In Col-0 and Te-0 tissues, fluorescence is detected around the haustoria (HA; arrows), but not at the cell wall of penetrated cells. Fungal autofluorescence is also depicted. H: hyphae. Bars: 30 μm. (c) Plant cell death, evidenced by trypan blue staining, is only found in Kas-1 tissues (arrowhead). Haustorial-like structures are shown by dashed lines. Fungal structures are stained with trypan blue. Bars: 30 μm. Insets on (a) and (c) correspond to 4X enlargements of the shown pictures.
Fabro and Alvarez BMC Plant Biology 2012 12:143 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-143