Induction of DCX expression in response to retinoic acid treatment. Cell lines grown in standard conditions did not express DCX (green) (A-F), whereas following retinoic acid treatment NTERA-2 cells (G) and to a lower extent D283 cells (H) expressed DCX. The presence of Map2 (red) could also be detected in most DCX-expressing NTERA-2. Strong induction of DCX mRNA expression (M) and protein expression (N) were also detected in NTERA-2 cultures and to a lower level in D283 cultures following retinoic acid treatment. Treatment of PC12 with retinoic acid or NGF did not result in an induction of DCX protein expression. O) In response to retinoic acid, differentiation of NTERA-2 cells resulted in the successive induction of NeuroD1, DCX and NSE mRNAs expression. P) Immunocytochemistry on retinoic acid-treated NTERA-2 cultures revealed an early induction of A2B5 expression, followed by the induction of the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin, DCX and Map2. GFAP-expressing cells remained a minor fraction within the cultures.
Couillard-Despres et al. BMC Neuroscience 2008 9:31 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-9-31