Immunofluorescence analysis of BBB endothelial expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin (A) and PECAM1 (B), following exposure to CSEs from 1R5F, 3R4F, NF and ultralow nicotine cigarettes. Immunofluorescence analysis of PECAM1 was confirmed by WB of corresponding membrane fractions. (C) Release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 was up-regulated in endothelial cultures exposed to NF and ultralow nicotine CSE while MMP-2 levels were increased by CSE from 3R4F and NF but not ultralow nicotine. n = 3 biological replicates, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ****p < 0.0001 compared to controls.
Naik et al. BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:51 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-51