Figure 3.

Long-term memory assessments after laminarin injection. A1. Protocol indicating timing of injection and start of pre- and post training tests with respect to the start of the first training session for both the conditioned (CS-UCS) and control (CS-DS) animals. A2. LTM assessment in animals injected 1 hr before training. There was a robust response to conditioning in vehicle injected animals. In contrast, none of the unconditioned animals or the laminarin treated conditioned animals responded with significant feeding movements in the post-training test. These results indicate LTM impairment in snails treated with laminarin 1 hr before training. B1. Protocol indicating timing of injection and start of pre- and post training tests with respect to the start of the first training session for both the conditioned (CS-UCS) and control (CS-DS) animals. B2. LTM assessment in animals treated 24 hrs before training. Both laminarin and vehicle treated conditioned animals showed a significant increase in the Δrasp values in the post-training test compared to their unconditioned peers suggesting that laminarin has no adverse effect on LTM performance when injected a day before training. * = P < 0.05, *** = p < 0.001, ns = non-significant.

Hermann et al. BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:83   doi:10.1186/1471-2202-14-83
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