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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Cortical contusion injury disrupts olfactory bulb neurogenesis in adult mice

Kryslaine L Radomski, Qiong Zhou, Kevin J Yi and Martin L Doughty*

Author Affiliations

Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA

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BMC Neuroscience 2013, 14:142  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-14-142

Published: 13 November 2013

Abstract

Background

Experimental brain trauma activates quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) to increase neuronal progenitor cell proliferation in the adult rodent brain. Previous studies have shown focal brain contusion in the form of a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) stimulates NSCs to bilaterally increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

Results

In this study we clarified the bi-lateral effects of a unilateral CCI on proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) NSC niche and on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of adult mice. By varying the depth of impact from 1 mm to 2 mm depth, we show CCI to the left somatosensory cortex resulted in graded changes in mouse behavior and cellular pathology in the forebrain. As expected, contusion to the sensorimotor cortex resulted in motor coordination deficits in adult mice. During the first 3 days after injury, CCI increased proliferation in the impacted cortex, deeper striatum and SVZ of the forebrain ipsilateral to the CCI. In each of these regions proliferation was increased with increasing injury severity. At 30 days post-procedure, CCI resulted in a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb ipsilateral to the CCI. Olfactory avoidance testing indicated disruptions in olfactory bulb neurogenesis were associated with impaired olfactory discrimination in mice post-injury.

Conclusion

The data demonstrate a focal cortical contusion injury to the left somatosensory cortex disrupts SVZ-olfactory bulb neurogenesis and impairs olfactory discrimination and motor coordination in adult mice.

Keywords:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI); Controlled cortical impact (CCI); Subventricular zone (SVZ); Neural stem cell (NSC); Olfactory bulb