The mitogenic effect of Shh on cell proliferation. Representative microscopic images show BrdU labeled proliferating cells (green), nestin labeled neuronal cells (red), and doubling labeled proliferating neuronal cells of BrdU and nestin in the control (A), 250 ng/ml shh treated (B), and 5 μM cyclopamine treated (C) cell cultures from mSOD mice. With overall cell proliferation (D, E, F, G), shh treated cell culture from both WT (C, E) and mSOD mice (D, F) had a significantly higher percentage (D, E) or number of BrdU+ cells (F, G) than control or cyclopamine treated cultures. With neuronal cell proliferation (H, I, J, K), shh treated cell culture from both WT (H, J) and mSOD mice (I, K) had a significantly higher percentage (H, I) or number of double labeling of BrdU+/nestin+ cells (J, K) than control or cyclopamine treated cultures. The effect of cyclopamine was absent or relatively subdued in G93A SOD1 mice. ** shh vs control, * shh vs cyclopamine, δ cyclopamine vs control Scale bar =25 μm (A, B, C).
Ma et al. BMC Neuroscience 2013 14:119 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-14-119