Gene transcription profiling reveals functional categories regulated by learning and swimming in the cortex of aged mice. (A) Categories of transcripts that were differentially regulated by learning and swimming in 20-month old male C57Bl/6 mice. Signaling pathways implicated in learning, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, are prominent among these transcripts. (B) Functional pathways activated following learning and swimming. These pathways were derived from analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. (A), Learners upregulated transcripts that are categorized in an unbiased manner by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis as being linked primarily to nervous system development. (B), The network derived from genes downregulated in learners, relative to swimmers, is linked primarily to cell death.
Park et al. BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:63 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-63