Robustness of TE analysis against common noise and volume conduction. (A) Independent white Gaussian noise processes X,Y. Left: Significant couplings (i.e. false positives) at a test level of 5%. Right: significant shift test results at a test level of 5%. (B) Single Gaussian white noise process X observed by two noisy sensors Xε, Yε. (C) Two independent Gaussian white noise sources X,Y, observed via a linear mixing system on two noisy sensors Xε, Yε. (D) Mixing as in C. Here, the two source AR(10) processes are coupled by a quadratic coupling function.
Lindner et al. BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:119 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-119