Table 1 

Four situations in which pseudoreplication can arise. 

Situation 
Example 
Solutions 


Repeated measures 
Growth curve 
1. Include subject as a random effect 
2. Repeated measures ANOVA 

3. Summarymeasure analysis 

Hierarchical/nested 
Multiple brain sections 
1. Include random effects 
Multiple coverslips/wells 
2. Average over observations 

Litter effects 

Correlated in time 
Time of day testing occurs 
1. Include time as covariate 
Circadian effects 
2. Include sample number as a covariate 

Correlated in space 
Multiple incubators 
1. Include random effects 
Cage effects 
2. Average over observations 



Lazic BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:5 doi:10.1186/14712202115 