Table 1

Four situations in which pseudoreplication can arise.

Situation

Example

Solutions


Repeated measures

Growth curve

1. Include subject as a random effect

2. Repeated measures ANOVA

3. Summary-measure analysis

Hierarchical/nested

Multiple brain sections

1. Include random effects

Multiple coverslips/wells

2. Average over observations

Litter effects

Correlated in time

Time of day testing occurs

1. Include time as covariate

Circadian effects

2. Include sample number as a covariate

Correlated in space

Multiple incubators

1. Include random effects

Cage effects

2. Average over observations


Lazic BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:5   doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-5

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