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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Effects of creatine and β-guanidinopropionic acid and alterations in creatine transporter and creatine kinases expression in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models

Dae Won Kim13, Seong-Il Yeo23, Hea Jin Ryu23, Ji-Eun Kim23, Hong-Ki Song34, Oh-Shin Kwon5, Soo Young Choi13* and Tae-Cheon Kang23*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Science, Hallym University, Chunchon Kangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea

2 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea

3 Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea

4 Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea

5 Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Science, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-702, Republic of Korea

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BMC Neuroscience 2010, 11:141  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-141

Published: 28 October 2010

Abstract

Background

In order to confirm the roles of creatine (Cr) in epilepsy, we investigated the anti-convulsive effects of Cr, creatine transporter (CRT) and creatine kinases (CKs) against chemical-induced acute seizure activity and chronic epileptic seizure activity.

Results

Two hr after pilocarpine (PILO)-seizure induction, ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) immunoreactivity was unaltered as compared to control level. However, brain-type cytoplasm CK (BCK) immunoreactivity was decreased to 70% of control level. CRT immunoreactivity was decreased to 60% of control level. Following Cr or Tat-CK treatment, uMtCK or CRT immunoreactivity was unaffected, while BCK immunoreactivity in Cr treated group was increased to 3.6-fold of control levels. β-Guanidinopropionic acid (GPA, a competitive CRT inhibitor) reduced BCK and CRT expression. In addition, Cr and tat-BCK treatment delayed the beginning of seizure activity after PILO injection. However, GPA treatment induced spontaneous seizure activity without PILO treatment. In chronic epilepsy rats, both uMtCK and CRT immunoreactivities were reduced in the hippocampus. In contrast, BCK immunoreactivity was similar to that observed in control animals. Cr-, GPA and tat-BCK treatment could not change EEG.

Conclusion

Cr/CK circuit may play an important role in sustaining or exacerbating acute seizure activity, but not chronic epileptic discharge.