a. MSN spike count in response to causal, and other, actions over trials. The phasic DA dip occurs after assigning a noxious value to the outcome of the causal action. b. Synaptic conductances at key trials. Only the first 50 synapses contribute to the action representation.
Gurney et al. BMC Neuroscience 2009 10(Suppl 1):P135 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-10-S1-P135