MI and VN conceived the study. MI wrote the manuscript and carried out IF, and transcription studies. VN evaluated the data and revised the manuscript. LB carried out reporter assays with Nef constructs. MB carried out the gene array experiments. AA-G carried out the reporter assays with Nef constructs and Western blots. XZ, JY, DH, and RA participated in coordination and bioinformatic analysis of the gene array studies. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.