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Open Access Research article

Antibiotic susceptibility patterns among respiratory isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a Turkish university hospital

Ugur Gonlugur1*, Mustafa Zahir Bakici2, Ibrahim Akkurt1 and Tanseli Efeoglu1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Chest Diseases, Cumhuriyet University Medical School, 58140, Sivas, Turkey

2 Department of Microbiology, Cumhuriyet University Medical School, 58140, Sivas, Turkey

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BMC Microbiology 2004, 4:32  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-4-32

Published: 22 August 2004



Gram-negative bacteria cause most nosocomial respiratory infections. At the University of Cumhuriyet, we examined 328 respiratory isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumanii organisms in Sivas, Turkey over 3 years. We used disk diffusion or standardized microdilution to test the isolates against 18 antibiotics.


We cultured organisms from sputum (54%), tracheal aspirate (25%), and bronchial lavage fluid (21%). The most common organisms were Klebsiella spp (35%), A. baumanii (27%), and Escherichia coli (15%). Imipenem was the most active agent, inhibiting 90% of Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumanii organisms. We considered approximately 12% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 21% of E. coli isolates to be possible producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. K. pneumoniae isolates of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype were more resistant to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in our study than they are in other regions of the world.


Our results suggest that imipenem resistance in our region is growing.