Open Access Research article

L-alanine-induced germination in Bacillus licheniformis -the impact of native gerA sequences

Elisabeth H Madslien12, Per Einar Granum2, Janet M Blatny1 and Toril Lindbäck2*

Author Affiliations

1 Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt FFI, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, P. O. Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway

2 Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway

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BMC Microbiology 2014, 14:101  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-101

Published: 22 April 2014

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Comparison of germination efficiency in 46 B. licheniformis strains. The relative decrease in absorbance (A600) in the spore suspension was measured 2 h after the addition of germinant (100 mM L-alanine). The strains NVH1032, NVH800, ATCC14580/DSM13 and NVH1112 were selected for further analysis (indicated with arrows).

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Additional file 2:

Spore germination of MW3 carrying pHT315. Germination of MW3 (▲) and MW3_pHT315 () measured as reduction in absorbance (A600) after addition of germinant (100 mM L-alanine). MW3_pHT315 ctrl (■) is not added any germinant.

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Additional file 3:

Promoter sequence alignment. Alignment of the estimated σG dependent gerA promoter sequences of B. subtilis spp. subtilis str.168 and B. licheniformis ATCC14580/DSM13, NVH1112, NVH800 and NVH1032. DBTBS was used to identify promoter sequences. The B. subtilis promoter (underlined) and transcriptional start site (arrow) were experimentally defined by Feavers et al. (1990) [24].

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Additional file 4:

Amino acid sequence alignment of GerAA from ATCC14580/DSM13, NVH1032, NVH800 and NVH1112. Residues with substitutions are indicated in yellow. Alignment was performed with ClustalW in MEGA5. The numbered solid lines indicate regions of predicted transmembrane domains (TOPCONS).

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Additional file 5:

Amino acid sequence alignment of GerAB from ATCC14580/DSM13, NVH1032, NVH800 and NVH1112. Residues with substitutions are indicated in yellow. Alignment was performed with ClustalW in MEGA5. The numbered solid lines indicate regions of predicted transmembrane domains (TOPCONS).

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Additional file 6:

Amino acid sequence alignment of GerAC from ATCC14580/DSM13, NVH1032, NVH800 and NVH1112. Residues with substitutions are indicated in yellow. Alignment was performed with ClustalW in MEGA5.

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Additional file 7:

3D-model of the GerAC protein of B. licheniformis. Substitutions that were detected in strain NVH1032, NVH800 and NVH1112 are indicated with red. Modelling was performed in PyMOL.

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Additional file 8:

Primers used in PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of gerA operons from B. licheniformis strains NVH 1112, NVH1032 and NVH800.

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