Western blot analysis of p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases activation on bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cells after challenge heat-stable Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). BIE cells were pre-treated with Lactobacillus casei OLL2768 or Pam3CSK4 for 48 hours and then stimulated with heat-stable ETEC PAMPs or LPS. Phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK was studied at the indicated times post-stimulation. Significantly different from time 0 *(P<0.05).
Takanashi et al. BMC Microbiology 2013 13:54 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-54