Open Access Research article

Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

Liang-Tzung Lin12, Ting-Ying Chen3, Song-Chow Lin4, Chueh-Yao Chung5, Ta-Chen Lin6, Guey-Horng Wang7, Robert Anderson28, Chun-Ching Lin35* and Christopher D Richardson28*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

2 Department of Pediatrics and Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

3 School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

4 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

5 Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

6 Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan

7 Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan

8 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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BMC Microbiology 2013, 13:187  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-187

Published: 7 August 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1: Figure S1:

Examination of CHLA and PUG treatment on HCMV cell-to-cell spread. HEL cell monolayers were inoculated and infected with HCMV for 2 h, washed with PBS to remove excess surface bound virus, and covered with an overlay medium to prevent secondary infection. Initial virus plaques were allowed to form in the subsequent infections and CHLA, PUG, Heparin, DMSO control were added to the overlay medium for an additional incubation time before analysis of viral plaque size by immune fluorescence microscopy at 5 days post-infection as described in Methods. Representative virus plaques/foci are shown after three independent experiments were performed. Scale bar indicates 100 μm.

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Additional file 2: Figure S2:

Examination of CHLA and PUG treatment on HCV cell-to-cell spread. Huh-7.5 cells were electroporated with full-length HCV replicon RNA and covered with an overlay medium to prevent secondary infection. Initial virus plaques were allowed to form in the subsequent infections and CHLA, PUG, Heparin, and DMSO control were added to the overlay medium for an additional incubation time before analysis of viral plaque size by immune fluorescence microscopy at 7 days post-electroporation as described in Methods. Representative virus plaques/foci are shown after three independent experiments were performed. Scale bar indicates 100 μm.

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Additional file 3: Figure S3:

Examination of CHLA and PUG treatment on DENV-2 cell-to-cell spread. Vero cells were inoculated and infected with DENV-2 for 1.5 h, washed with citrate buffer to remove excess surface bound virus, and covered with an overlay medium to prevent secondary infection. Initial virus plaques were allowed to form in the subsequent infections and CHLA, PUG, Heparin, and DMSO control were added to the overlay medium for an additional incubation time before analysis of viral plaque size by immune fluorescence microscopy at 6 days post-infection as described in Methods. Representative virus plaques/foci are shown after three independent experiments were performed. Scale bar indicates 100 μm.

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Additional file 4: Figure S4:

Examination of CHLA and PUG treatment on MV-EGFP cell-to-cell spread. CHO-SLAM cells were inoculated and infected with MV-EGFP for 1.5 h, washed with citrate buffer to remove excess surface bound virus, and covered with an overlay medium to prevent secondary infection. Initial virus plaques were allowed to form in the subsequent infections and CHLA, PUG, Heparin, FIP, and DMSO control were added to the overlay medium for an additional incubation time before analysis of viral plaque size by EGFP fluorescence microscopy at 48 h post-infection as described in Methods. Representative virus plaques/foci are shown after three independent experiments were performed. Scale bar indicates 100 μm.

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Additional file 5: Figure S5:

Examination of CHLA and PUG treatment on RSV cell-to-cell spread. HEp-2 cells were inoculated and infected with RSV for 1.5 h, washed with citrate buffer to remove excess surface bound virus, and covered with an overlay medium to prevent secondary infection. Initial virus plaques were allowed to form in the subsequent infections and CHLA, PUG, Heparin, and DMSO control were added to the overlay medium for an additional incubation time before analysis of viral plaque size by immune fluorescence microscopy at 48 h post-infection as described in Methods. Representative virus plaques/foci are shown after three independent experiments were performed. Scale bar indicates 100 μm.

Format: JPEG Size: 318KB Download file

Open Data