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Open Access Research article

Physiology of deletion mutants in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans

Frauke Lüddeke, Aytac Dikfidan and Jens Harder*

Author Affiliations

Dep. of Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359, Bremen, Germany

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BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:192  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-192

Published: 4 September 2012

Abstract

Background

Monoterpenes present a large and versatile group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of plant origin with widespread use in the fragrance as well as food industry. The anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen differs from well known aerobic, monooxygenase-containing pathways. The initial enzyme linalool dehydratase-isomerase ldi/LDI catalyzes the hydration of β-myrcene to (S)-(+)-linalool and its isomerization to geraniol. A high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase geoA/GeDH and a geranial dehydrogenase geoB/GaDH contribute to the formation of geranic acid.

A genetic system was for the first time applied for the betaproteobacterium to prove in vivo the relevance of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase and the geraniol dehydrogenase. In-frame deletion cassettes were introduced by conjugation and two homologous recombination events.

Results

Polar effects were absent in the in-frame deletion mutants C. defragrans Δldi and C. defragrans ΔgeoA. The physiological characterization of the strains demonstrated a requirement of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase for growth on acyclic monoterpenes, but not on cyclic monoterpenes. The deletion of geoA resulted in a phenotype with hampered growth rate on monoterpenes as sole carbon and energy source as well as reduced biomass yields. Enzyme assays revealed the presence of a second geraniol dehydrogenase. The deletion mutants were in trans complemented with the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1MCS-4ldi and pBBR1MCS-2geoA, restoring in both cases the wild type phenotype.

Conclusions

In-frame deletion mutants of genes in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation revealed novel insights in the in vivo function. The deletion of a high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase hampered, but did not preclude growth on monoterpenes. A second geraniol dehydrogenase activity was present that contributes to the β-myrcene degradation pathway. Growth on cyclic monoterpenes independent of the initial enzyme LDI suggests the presence of a second enzyme system activating unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Keywords:
β-myrcene; phellandrene; Anaerobic degradation; Geraniol dehydrogenase; Linalool dehydratase-isomerase; Genetic system