ProTα or proTα(100–109) induce DC maturation. Monocytes were differentiated to immature DCs (iDCs) upon 5-day incubation with GM-CSF and IL-4, followed by 48 h exposure to LPS, TNF-α, proTα or proTα(100–109). Expression of surface HLA-DR, CD11b, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and CD14 on iDCs and mature DCs are shown as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ± SD from 5 donors. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001, compared to iDCs.
Ioannou et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:43 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-43