Figure 5.

Effect of lactobacilli on respiratory immune cells populations after the nasal administration of the viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern poly(I:C). Effect of viable (Lr05) or heat-killed (HkLr05) Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and viable (Lr06) or heat-killed (HkLr06) L. rhamnosus CRL1506 nasal administration on CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+, CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD3+CD4+IL-10+ T cells and CD11c+CD103+MHCII+ and CD11c+CD11bhighMHCII+ dendritic cells from lung. Lr05, Lr06, HkLr05 or HkLr06 were nasally administered to different groups of mice for 2 consecutive days at a dose of 108 cells/mouse/day. After lactobacilli treatment, mice received three doses of poly(I:C) with 24 hours rest period between each administration. Lung immune cells were studied 48 hours after the third challenge with poly(I:C). The results represent data from three independent experiments. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05).

Tomosada et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:40   doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-40
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