Cytokine signatures separating illness groups in female subjects. Immune cytokine expression patterns separating of female GWI, CFS and healthy control subjects identified using a step-wise selection method across all time points (rest, peak activity, and recovery). Red arrows indicate a negative contribution, vice versa for black arrows. Arrow line thickness is proportional to the magnitude of standardized canonical coefficients. While decreased IL-23 expression in the context of increased IL-5 levels provided strong separation of GWI from healthy controls the signal for CFS was much weaker and required relaxation of the constraints on cross-correlation between cytokines.
Smylie et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:29 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-29