Gender differences in immune signatures among healthy controls. Immune cytokine expression of male and female healthy controls was compared using a step-wise method across all time points (rest, peak activity, and recovery). Red arrows indicate a negative contribution of a particular cytokine in female healthy controls compared to males and vice versa for black arrows. Arrow line thickness is proportional to the magnitude of the standardized canonical coefficients. Changes in IL-23 were a dominant factor at all time points, in particular when cast against concurrent levels of IL-2 and IL-5 expression under challenge.
Smylie et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:29 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-29