Table 1

Summary of main phenotypic and functional characteristics of B-cell subsets
Phenotypic marker Functions and other characteristics References
Marginal Zone B-cells
SIgMhi SIgDloCD27+ CD21hi Mutated BcR in humans on >80% MZ B-cells 67-69,72
CD23- TI-Ab response. Produced Low affinity IgM
CD21 modulates BCR signalling 141
CXCR5+ S1P1hi S1P3hi Preferential sequestration in MZ, shutling into follicles upon stimulation 55, 56, 58, 59
BcR-independent transport of high MW Ags and virus particles into GC 56,83
Present in periphery (blood, Lymph node, spleen) in humans 69
TLR 2> 1, 6; TLR10 Surface TLRs associated into functional TLR2/1 or TLR2/6 complexes 108, 109
TLR9>7 Endosomal TLR detecting unmethylated CpG DNA and ssRNA
CD1chi Expression ↘ upon CD40L stimulation but ↗ after BcR triggering 115
LDL-R+ Binds and internalizes lipid Ags associated with Apo-E 117
CD1dhi Presents lipid Ags to iNKT 116, 119-122
CD1d expression decreases rapidly after BCR or CD40 activation 118
Cognate interactions with iNKT, which in turn produce IL17 and IL22 119-122
BAFF-R++, TACI+ Strong expression of their ligand, BAFF, in MZ. Survival of MZ B-cells. 75
Role of BAFF in the transient relocalisation of MZ B-cells into follicles
Follicular Naive B-cells
SIgM+ SIgDhiCD27- CD21+CD23hi Unmutated BcR.
CXCR5++ S1P1+ S1P3- Preferential homing to follicles 56
TLR 2> 1, 6, TLR10 Surface TLRs associated into functional TLR2/1 or TLR2/6 complexes 108,109
TLR9>7 Endosomal TLR detecting unmethylated CpG DNA and ssRNA,
CD1c+, CD1dhi Functional role? 118
BAFF-R++, TACI+ Naive B-cell survival
Conventional Memory B-cells
SIgD-, SIgG/A>SIgM, CD27+ High affinity hypermutated BcR
CD21hiCD23- Role of CD21 in memory B-cell survival 141
TLR9++, TLR7+ ↗ expression of TLR 7, 9 in memory B-cells compared to naive B-cells 7,113
BAFF-R+TACI+ BAFF preferentially enhances memory B-cell chemotaxis to CXCL13 86
Regulatory B-cells
CD1dhi CD5+ TIM-1+ B10:IL10-producing B-cells in mice. Located in/near MZ 123,124
Expanded by BAFF in mice 130
CD27+ IL10-producing memory B-cells in humans 127, 132-134
CD19+CD24hi CD38hi IL10-producing transitional B-cells in humans. Regulatory functions on CD4+ T-cells 134
CD19+ SIgM+ BAFF-R+ CD21- No response to BcR, CD40 or BAFF-R stimulation 134
CD23-CD43- Production of IgM, IL10 and IL4 in response to TLR9, 7 stimulation
Induce IL17 production by activated T-cells 115
CD21lo CD11c+ CD5+ CD138+ Present in aged and autoimmune mice. Pre-plasmablasts? 157
CD95hi CD80hi CD86hi No response to BcR stimulation but produced IgG after TLR7 triggering
CD20hi CD21lo CD11c+ CD5hiCD27hi Present in blood of elderly female autoimmune patients 132,133
CD23-SIg-CD80hiCD86hi Pre-plasmablasts?
CD21loCD27+ Activated B-cells or pre-plasmablasts present in HIV-infected patients 148-150
CD21loCD27-PD1+ FcRL4+ Exhausted tissue-like memory B-cells present in HIV-infected patients 148-150

Garraud et al.

Garraud et al. BMC Immunology 2012 13:63   doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-63

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