Effect of high glucose concentrations on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Supernatants from monocytes cultured in the presence of 5.5 and 50 mmol/l D-glucose for 7 days were used for the quantification of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α protein levels. (A) The bar graphs represent the quantification of cytokine production (n = 3). (B) The expression of TNF-α mRNA from monocytes cultured in high glucose. TNF-α mRNA and 18 S ribosomal RNA expression was analyzed by qPCR, and the results are expressed according to the ΔΔCt method. The data are presented as the mean ± SD for all graphics (n = 3). * P < 0.05 compared to treatment with 5.5 mmol/l D-glucose.
Gonzalez et al. BMC Immunology 2012 13:19 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-19