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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Expression of CD39 on FoxP3+ T regulatory cells correlates with progression of HBV infection

Yan Tang1, Li Jiang2, Yanhua Zheng3, Bing Ni1* and Yuzhang Wu1*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Immunology, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, People Republic of China

2 Institution of Infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, Chongqing 400038, People Republic of China

3 Department of Pathology and Experimental Medicine, 306 Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100101, People Republic of China

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BMC Immunology 2012, 13:17  doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-17

Published: 11 April 2012



Although it is known that regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress the function of effector T cells, and may contribute to impaired immune response, the precise role of Tregs during the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be elucidated. A newly identified subset of the CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs, the CD39+ Tregs, has been associated with viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that this discrete Treg subset may contribute to the chronic infection of HBV.


Initial characterization studies of healthy peripheral CD39+FoxP3+CD4+ T cells revealed that the majority were CD45RA- Treg cells. Subsequent analysis of HBV-infected patients (38 asymptomatic HBV carriers (AsCs), 37 chronic active hepatitis B (CAH), 29 HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF)) and healthy individuals (25 controls) was conducted to assess association with HBV copy number and the liver injury marker alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A higher percentage of CD39+ Tregs was detected within the population of FoxP3+CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of AsCs patients. Moreover, the percentage of CD39+ Tregs was significantly less in CAH and ACLF patients. The increased proportions of circulating CD39+ Tregs were positively correlated with serum viral load, but inversely correlated with serum ALT level.


These findings not only suggest that CD39+ Treg cells may be involved in HBV disease progression but also identify CD39+ Tregs as a dynamic immune regulatory cell population that may represent a new target of immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions.

Hepatitis B; CD39; Regulatory T lymphocyte